From Theory to Practice: Funds of Knowledge as a Framework for Science Teaching and Learning

Citation
Print Friendly, PDF & Email

St. Clair, T. & McNulty, K. (2021). From Theory to Practice: Funds of Knowledge as a Framework for Science Teaching and Learning. Innovations in Science Teacher Education, 6(2). Retrieved from https://innovations.theaste.org/from-theory-to-practice-funds-of-knowledge-as-a-framework-for-science-teaching-and-learning/

by Tyler St. Clair, Longwood University; & Kaitlin McNulty, Norwood-Norfork Central School

Abstract

The phrase "funds of knowledge" refers to a contemporary science education research framework that provides a unique way of understanding and leveraging student diversity. Students’ funds of knowledge can be understood as the social relationships through which they have access to significant knowledge and expertise (e.g., family practices, peer activities, issues faced in neighborhoods and communities). This distributed knowledge is a valuable resource that might enhance science teaching and learning in schools when used properly. This article aims to assist science methods instructors and secondary classroom teachers to better understand funds of knowledge theory and to provide numerous examples and resources for what this theory might look like in practice.

Innovations Journal articles, beyond each issue's featured article, are included with ASTE membership. If your membership is current please login at the upper right.

Become a member or renew your membership

References

Aschbacher, P. R., Li, E., & Roth, E. J. (2010). Is science me? High school students’ identities, participation and aspirations in science, engineering, and medicine. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 47(5), 564–582. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.20353

Barton, A. C. (with Ermer, J. L., Burkett, T. A., & Osborne, M. D.). (2003). Teaching science for social justice. Teachers College Press.

Bhabha, H. (1994). The location of space. Routledge.

Bian, L., Leslie, S.-J., & Cimpian, A. (2017). Gender stereotypes about intellectual ability emerge early and influence children’s interests. Science, 355(6323), 389–391. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aah6524

Chambers, D. W. (1983). Stereotypic images of the scientist: The Draw‐a‐Scientist Test. Science Education, 67(2), 255–265. https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.3730670213

Ciechanowski, K., Bottoms, S., Fonseca, A. L., & St. Clair, T. (2015). Should Rey Mysterio drink Gatorade? Cultural competence in afterschool STEM programming. Afterschool Matters, 21, 29–37. http://www.niost.org/images/afterschoolmatters/asm_2015_spring/Rey_Mysterio.pdf

Cvencek, D., Meltzoff, A. N., & Greenwald, A. G. (2011). Math–gender stereotypes in elementary school children. Child Development, 82(3), 766–779. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01529.x

Moje, E. B., Ciechanowski, K. M., Kramer, K., Ellis, L., Carrillo, R., & Collazo, T. (2004). Working toward third space in content area literacy: An examination of everyday funds of knowledge and discourse. Reading Research Quarterly, 39(1), 38–70. https://doi.org/10.1598/RRQ.39.1.4

Moll, L. C., Amanti, C., Neff, D., & Gonzalez, N. (1992). Funds of knowledge for teaching: Using a qualitative approach to connect homes and classrooms. Theory Into Practice, 31(2), 132–141. https://doi.org/10.1080/00405849209543534

Saifer, S., Edwards, K., Ellis, D., Ko, L., & Stuczynski, A. (2011). Culturally responsive standards-based teaching: Classroom to community and back (2nd ed.). Corwin Press.

Whitworth, B. A., & Bell, R. L. (2013). Physics portfolios: A picture of student understanding. The Science Teacher, 80(8), 38–43. https://doi.org/10.2505/4/tst13_080_08_38

Supporting Middle and Secondary Science Teachers to Implement Sustainability-Themed Instruction

Citation
Print Friendly, PDF & Email

Mark, S. L. (2021). Supporting Middle and Secondary Science Teachers to Implement Sustainability-Themed Instruction. Innovations in Science Teacher Education, 6(1). Retrieved from https://innovations.theaste.org/supporting-middle-and-secondary-science-teachers-to-implement-sustainability-themed-instruction/

by Sheron L. Mark, PhD, University of Louisville, College of Education and Human Development, 1905 S 1st Street, Louisville, KY 40292

Abstract

In today’s society, we face many complex environmental, social, and economic challenges that can be addressed through a lens of sustainability. Furthermore, our efforts in addressing these challenges must be collective. Science education is foundational to preparing students with the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to engage in this work in professional and everyday capacities. This article describes a teacher education project aimed at preparing middle and secondary preservice and alternatively certified science teachers to teach through a lens of sustainability. The project was embedded within a middle and secondary science teaching methods course. Work produced by the teacher candidates, including case-study research presentations and week-long instructional plans, is described.

Innovations Journal articles, beyond each issue's featured article, are included with ASTE membership. If your membership is current please login at the upper right.

Become a member or renew your membership

References

Barnett, R. (2011). Environmental issues, Louisvile, KY. Kentucky Institute for the Environment and Sustainable Development.

Bullard, R. D. (Ed.). (1996). Unequal protection: Environmental justice and communities of color. Sierra Club Books.

Bullard, R. D. (2000). Dumping in Dixie: Race, class, and environmental quality (3rd ed.). Westview Press.

Colucci-Gray, L., Perazzone, A., Dodman, M., & Camino, E. (2013). Science education for sustainability, epistemological reflections and educational practices: From natural sciences to trans-disciplinarity. Cultural Studies of Science Education, 8(1), 127–183. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11422-012-9405-3

Corsey, G. (2019, Oct 17). Rubbertown chemical plant fined $100,000 in settlement with city of Louisville over ‘repeat’ violations. WDRB. https://www.wdrb.com/news/rubbertown-chemical-plant-fined-in-settlement-with-city-of-louisville/article_d18c203a-f04d-11e9-98fc-03a59bdf27cb.html

Mark, S. L. (2021). Preparing for inclusivity and diverse perspectives on social, political, and equity issues in higher education. College Teaching, 69(2), 78-81. https://doi.org/10.1080/87567555.2020.1820433

McIntyre, B. D., Herren, H. R., Wakhungu, J., & Watson, R. T. (Eds.). (2009). Agriculture at a crossroads: International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development: Synthesis Report. International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development. https://www.gaiafoundation.org/app/uploads/2017/09/Agriculture-at-a-crossroads-Synthesis-report-2009Agriculture_at_Crossroads_Synthesis_Report.pdf

Jolly, A. (2017, July 19). The search for real-world STEM problems. Education Week. https://www.edweek.org/tm/articles/2017/07/17/the-search-for-real-world-stem-problems.html

Lemonick, M. D. (2009). Top 10 myths about sustainability. Scientific American, 19(1s), 40–45.  https://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamericanearth0309-40

LouisvilleKY.gov. (n.d.). Rubbertown air toxics risk assessment. https://louisvilleky.gov/government/air-pollution-control-district/rubbertown-air-toxics-risk-assessment

Mark, S. L. (2016). Psychology of working narratives of STEM career exploration for non-dominant youth. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 25(6), 976–993. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-016-9646-0

National Research Council. (2012). A framework for K-12 science education: Practices, crosscutting concepts, and core ideas. National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/13165

NGSS Lead States. (2013). Next generation science standards: For states, by states. National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/18290

Rodriguez, A. J. (2015). What about a dimension of engagement, equity, and diversity practices? A critique of the Next Generation Science Standards. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 52(7), 1031–1051. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.21232

Saldaña, J. (2015). The coding manual for qualitative researchers (3rd ed.). Sage.

Smith, E. (2015, November 25). An environmental injustice tour of West Louisville. Leo Weekly. https://www.leoweekly.com/2015/11/an-environmental-injustice-tour-of-west-louisville/

Teaching Tolerance. (2019). Let’s talk! Facilitating critical conversations with students. The Southern Poverty Law Center. https://www.tolerance.org/sites/default/files/2021-01/TT-Let-s-Talk-Publication-January-2020.pdf

United Nations Development Programme. (2015). Sustainable development goals. https://www.undp.org/content/dam/undp/library/corporate/brochure/SDGs_Booklet_Web_En.pdf

 

 

 

 

Preservice Elementary Teachers Using Graphing as a Tool for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing Science

Citation
Print Friendly, PDF & Email

Gould, D.L., Robles, R., & Rillero, P. (2021). Preservice elementary teachers using graphing as a tool for learning, teaching, and assessing science. Innovations in Science Teacher Education, 6(1). Retrieved from https://innovations.theaste.org/preservice-elementary-teachers-using-graphing-as-a-tool-for-learning-teaching-and-assessing-science/

by Deena L. Gould, University of New Mexico; Rolando Robles, Arizona State University; & Peter Rillero, Arizona State University

Abstract

Graphing is an important tool for seeing patterns, analyzing data, and building models of scientific phenomena. Teachers of elementary school children use graphs to display data but rarely as tools for analyzing or making sense of data (Coleman, McTigue, & Smolkin, 2011). We provide a set of lessons that guide preservice elementary school teachers to analyze their conceptions about graphing and use graphing to (a) see patterns in data, (b) discuss and analyze data, (c) model scientific phenomena, and (d) teach and assess inquiry-based science. Examples are adduced for how we guided and supported preservice elementary teachers in their conceptual understanding and deeper use of graphing.

Introduction

Graphing has been used as a tool for analyzing and interpreting the world around us for at least eleven centuries (Friendly, 2007). Graphing can render abstract concepts, such as the relationship between variables, more visually apparent and hence more concrete. Graphing played key roles in revolutionary scientific discoveries (i.e. Newton’s laws, 1699; Boyle’s law, 1662) and everyday engineering and scientific discoveries, such as where best to position armor plating on aircrafts (Wainer, 1992) and the source of a cholera epidemic (Wainer, 1992). While the skills and practice of graphing were included in the National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996), they take a central role in the Next Generation Science Standards (NRC, 2013). Graphing is an important tool in each of the following NGSS science and engineering practices: 2. Developing and using models; 4. Analyzing and interpreting data; 5. Using mathematics and computational thinking; 6. Constructing explanations (for science) and designing solutions (for engineering); 7. Engaging in argument from evidence; and 8. Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information.

When teachers have used graphs for instruction in elementary school, it has been mainly limited to observing graphical representations in books or interpreting basic graphical representations (Coleman, McTigue, & Smolkin, 2011). Teachers in elementary school have rarely incorporated graphing as a tool for visualizing, discussing, analyzing, or making sense of data or scientific phenomena (Coleman, et al., 2011). When students in elementary school have been asked to construct graphs, they rarely knew the reasons for doing so (Friel, Curcio, & Bright, 2001).

The reasons for the limited use of graphing in elementary school has not been well researched. However, Szjka, Mumba, and Wise (2011) reported that preservice elementary school teachers (PSTs) viewed graphing as more a function of mathematics than as an analytical tool useful for learning, teaching, or assessing inquiry-based science. There is potential for change, however. Roth, McGinn, and Bowen (1998) reported that PSTs who used graphing as a tool for understanding science activities in their preservice classes were later more likely to teach graphing as an analytical tool in their classrooms.

The Lessons

The set of experiences in this article was designed to help PSTs construct and use knowledge about graphing that could be applied in their teaching and assessment. In a 2017 study, teacher preparation courses that covered fewer topics with increased opportunity to unpack knowledge and apply that knowledge to teaching situations had a greater impact on the graduates’ later teaching practices than teacher preparation courses that covered many topics (Morris & Hiebert, 2017). Thus, in this set of experiences, we provided opportunity for PSTs to reflect on, and analyze, their conceptions about graphing in a form that allowed them to apply it to learning and teaching situations. This was an innovative approach for us. Our prior teaching had not assisted PSTs in transferring their use of graphing as an analytical tool into their own instruction.

Overall, the purpose of the set of experiences described in this article was to guide PSTs to experience, discuss, and use graphing as a tool for 1) seeing patterns in data, 2) discussing and analyzing data, 3) modeling scientific phenomena, and 4) teaching and assessing inquiry-based science. In these experiences, inquiry-based science was taken to mean using multiple modes of teaching to guide students to discover or construct understandings about science instead of having teachers directly convey the information about science (Keys & Bryan, 2001). In this set of experiences, we strived to support the PSTs in moving along a continuum of using and applying graphing as an analytical tool in the context of inquiry-based science as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1 (Click on image to enlarge)
Overview of Lessons

The context for our lessons was a one-semester elementary science methods course. This course was taken in the last semester of undergraduate study prior to student teaching. As a requirement of the course, PSTs planned and taught at least one inquiry-based science lesson in an elementary school classroom. As part of the course, PSTs also planned and delivered an inquiry-based microteaching lesson and an integrated STEM microteaching lesson to peers. PSTs were required to integrate math in one or more of these lessons.

Prior to the graphing lessons, we administered the 26 item multiple-choice Test of Graphing Skills (McKenzie & Padilla, 1986). The majority of PSTs demonstrated basic graphing skills (mean percent = 76.3, SD = 14.4; n = 77). These basic skills included selecting an appropriately scaled set of axes, selecting a set of coordinates, identifying manipulated and responding variables, selecting the best fit line, selecting a graph that correctly displays data, selecting the corresponding value for Y or X, identifying trends, interpolating and extrapolating from trends, selecting an appropriate description of a relationship shown on a graph, and identifying a generalization that interrelates the results of two graphs.

We built on this foundational knowledge with three focused lessons that guided the PSTs to use graphing in actual practice as a tool for 1) seeing patterns in data, 2) discussing and analyzing data, and 3) modeling scientific phenomena. These three initial lessons employed inquiry-based group work, direct instruction, and guided discussion to support PSTs to unpack their thinking and content knowledge about graphing as an analytical tool to build scientific understandings. The initial focused lessons occurred over three class sessions of one hour each during the second and third week of the course. Throughout the rest of the semester, we guided PSTs to extend and apply the knowledge from these lessons in their microteaching and field-based teaching and assessment. In this article, we show how PSTs’ conceptions about graphing evolved to become more explicit so the conceptions could be used as tools for learning, teaching, and assessing science.

The sequence of three lessons began with a guided-inquiry experience that used graphing as a tool to make visible the relationship between the amount of space a volume of a solid occupies and the amount of space a volume of a liquid occupies (Author citation, 2014). The second lesson focused on using graphing as a tool to discuss and analyze data about the mathematical relationship between mass and volume of water and vegetable oil. The third lesson used graphing as a tool to model and compare the density of seven distinct homogeneous substances.

Lesson 1: Graphing as a Tool for Seeing Patterns

The first lesson guided PSTs to develop standard graphing conventions that enabled them to visualize the relationship between the volume of a solid and the volume of a liquid. In particular, PSTs used graphing as a tool to discover and see clearly the relationship between the volume of space occupied by a milliliter (mL) of liquid and the volume of space occupied by a cubic centimeter (cm3) of solid. Our experience with this group of preservice elementary teachers indicated that a significant majority did not recognize this relationship prior to the lesson.

For the lesson, each group of three or four participants was provided a 0.5L bottle of water, 10 plastic 1 cubic centimeter blocks, a 100 mL graduated cylinder, and a metric ruler. They were asked to collect data and make a graph to show the relationship between the volume of the plastic cubes (cubic centimeters) and the volume of the water (milliliters) those cubes displaced. We used the following questions to facilitate discussion and support the PSTs to collectively design the investigation:

What are the variables? What are their units of measurement?

What could you do with the cubes to compare their volume to the volume of the water they displace?

How will you organize your data as you collect it?

Where does the manipulated variable go on the two column T chart? Is it X or Y?

How will you design the investigation so you can measure the responding variable in step-by-step coordination with the manipulated variable?

The questions and discussion led PSTs to suggest that they could drop the cubic centimeters one-at-a time into the graduated cylinder partly filled with water, record the measurements after each cube is submerged, and plot the data on a graph. We used plastic lab equipment and tap water that posed no significant safety concerns.

As PSTs investigated the relationship between the volume of a mL and the volume of a cm3 using the method of water displacement, some of the PSTs initially confused the measurement of the amount of water in the graduated cylinder with the measurement of the total volume taken up in the cylinder which included both the water and the cubes. It was helpful to ask if the amount of water in the graduated cylinder had changed so participants could conceptualize the meaning of water displacement and develop the concept that volume represents the amount of space matter occupies.

As PSTs used graphing to display and see patterns in the data, it was important to bring attention to conventions in graphing that are commonly overlooked. These include the conventions of titling the scatter plot as Y vs. X, making a scale of equal increments on each axis, positioning the responding variable on the Y-axis and the manipulated variable on the X-axis, and drawing a best-fit line (McKenzie & Padilla, 1986). A graphic organizer with the mnemonic DRY MIX served as a teaching tool and a reminder for placing data on axes (Figure 2).

Figure 2 (Click on image to enlarge)
Teaching Mnemonic and a Student’s Graph of mL vs. cm3

The PSTs noticed and stated that graphing made the one-to-one positive relationship between the volume of a mL and the volume of a cm3 clearly visible. They recorded their perceptions in writing and participated in oral discussion. During the discussion, we prompted PSTs to discuss aspects of the graphs that supported their understanding. It was helpful when we guided attention to the variety of ways that PSTs visualized and described the relationship as represented in Table 1. A word wall (Figure 3) also served as a valuable resource.

Figure 3 (Click on image to enlarge)
Word Wall That Added Oral and Written Explanations

Table 1 (Click on image to enlarge)
Representative Student Responses During Lesson 1

After the end of lesson 1, we prompted the PSTs to describe the role that graphing played in their exploration and understanding. One PST stated, “Graphing paints a picture. You can see things and use graphing to justify explanations.” Another stated, “Graphs are visuals. They show how things look and how things work by making a picture of the data.” One declared, “I liked that we got to see the concepts that we knew!” Another summarized the use of graphing as a tool, “Graphs communicate visually.”                                              

Lesson 2: Graphing as a Tool for Discussing and Analyzing Data

              During the second lesson, PSTs used graphing as a tool to analyze data and discuss the relationship between mass and volume of two liquids: vegetable oil and water. Half of the PSTs in each class explored the relationship between the mass and volume of water. Half of the PSTs in each class explored the relationship between the mass and volume of oil. Prior to beginning the hands-on investigation, we demonstrated the procedure for using the electronic scales, discussed reading the liquid meniscus in the graduated cylinder, and reviewed standard graphing practices covered in the previous session. To challenge PSTs to properly scale a graph with equal increments, we directed students to collect data for 10 mL, 15 mL, 25 mL, 40 mL, and 50 mL of their liquid. To help PSTs with their discussions and analyses, we prompted them to calculate the slope of the line and discuss what the slope of the line represented (Figure 4).

Figure 4 (Click on image to enlarge)
PST’s Graph of Mass Vs. Volume

For the final activity of lesson 2, students who explored and graphed the relationship between mass and volume of water partnered with students who explored and graphed the relationship between mass and volume of oil. We directed them to analyze data together by comparing graphs, describing relationships, and discussing possible reasons for the similarities and differences they observed. In other words, they were prompted to use the ratio of the relationship between mass and volume as depicted by the scatter graphs to discuss and explain similarities and differences between oil and water. The visual representation on the graph displayed the proportional relationship between the two quantities and helped lead the PSTs to attend to both quantities simultaneously.

As PSTs discussed the data and the relationships among the data, they were able to describe the meaning of the slope of the best-fit-line without using the word “density,” which helped them unpack their thinking and develop multiple ways to discuss, represent, and explain this concept. During the discussion, we modeled the use of a word wall as a resource in their discussions. After the students conducted the investigation, they noted that a word wall could serve as a tool to help their students bridge from everyday language to scientific language during discussions and data analyses. To help students unpack their conceptions about graphing, we brought attention to the diversity of ways that students analyzed and described the data (Table 2).

Table 2 (Click on image to enlarge)
Representative Student Responses During Lesson 2

After the end of lesson 2, we asked the PSTs to describe the role that graphing played in their data analyses and discussions. PSTs elaborated about the value of using graphing to visualize data. One stated, “Graphing makes it easier to see and read the data.” Another stated, “Graphing helps stimulate ideas and words. It helps you come up with ideas and explanations. It shows patterns so you can see and talk about them.” Another stated, “Graphing can help students explain when they don’t know because graphing can help you see and explain relationships.” Another PST stated, “Graphs can help you make a claim and justify the claim with evidence and reasoning that everyone can see.”

Lesson 3: Graphing as a Tool for Modeling Scientific Phenomena

            Graphing is also a valuable tool in modeling approaches to science instruction as analyses and discussions of data are central to the approach (Jackson, Duckerick, & Hestenes, 2008; Lehrer & Schauble, 2004; NRC, 2012). This third lesson was similar to the second lesson, however, each group of PSTs selected different substances to explore. Sets of one-cubic centimeter cubes of wood, aluminum, copper iron, brass, lead, zinc, and plastic were available. PSTs were directed to use graphing as a tool to model the mathematical relationship between the mass and volume of the selected substances. The previous two lessons provided experience for participants to be able to design this investigation in small groups with little instructor guidance. We prompted PSTs to calculate the slope of the line, discuss what the slope of the line represented, and use this information in their models (Table 3).

To help PSTs synthesize a mathematical model of density, we prompted them to rotate around the room, share data with classmates, and add lines representing several different substances from the data they gathered from classmates (Figure 5). They compared graphs, compared relationships, and discussed reasons for the similarities and differences they observed. As they shared data, they were able to develop a model that represented the relationship between mass and volume that was valid across a variety of substances.

Figure 5 (Click on image to enlarge)
PST’s Graph of Mass Vs. Volume

In the final activity of lesson 3, we presented each group with a mystery substance (a 2 x .5 inch cylinder of brass, aluminum, or steel) and asked them to use their model to make and justify a claim about the identity of the mystery substance. In small groups, PSTs generated strategies about how to compare the mystery substance with the known substances. They measured and calculated the densities of the mystery substances and compared them to the densities of the known substances (Table 3).

Table 3 (Click on image to enlarge)
Representative PST Responses During Lesson 3

After the end of lesson 3, we asked the PSTs to describe the role graphing and modeling played in their learning. One PST stated, “The graphic model helped us describe the abstract idea of density. It helped us use math to answer a question and it showed us how to use data and to represent data. It allowed us to work interdependently.” Another described the experience, “The graphs helped us talk about the strategies we came up with for the mystery substance. I found a lot of new ideas that way.” Another PST stated, “We were able to use data to make a model and to construct a reasonable explanation with the model. Graphing can communicate information. It (graphing) has many different purposes.” Another stated, “This shows that students can use math skills in reading, analyzing, and creating data and graphs for models. Modeling is useful to science because it helps make real world connections to actual events. It is important to make models for abstract concepts to demonstrate how the world works. I think that sharing was beneficial because it provides enough data to show a true trend.” One PST summarized the experience, “This graphing and modeling connects math and science to the real world and real problem solving rather than just question answering.”

Pedagogical Applications: Graphing as a Tool for Teaching and Assessing Inquiry-Based Science

Over the course of the three scaffolded lessons, PSTs took on more responsibility for planning the investigation, collecting the data, and using graphing as a tool for 1) seeing patterns in data, 2) discussing and analyzing data, and 3) modeling scientific phenomena. We helped facilitate this transition by prompting PSTs to do more, analyze their conceptions, and share their perspectives with each other. By gradually assuming greater ownership of the investigations, PSTs developed foundational knowledge, confidence, and initiative to use graphing as a tool for their own teaching over the rest of the semester.

Over the course of the semester, the PSTs analyzed, discussed, refined, and developed their use of graphing as a tool for learning, teaching, and assessing. Initially, some PSTs struggled to transfer their graphing knowledge and skills into actual practice, especially in ill-defined situations with unclear data. For example, a group of PSTs defaulted to using the collected data points instead of a scale of equal units when planning a lesson to guide elementary school students to graph and analyze the changes in stages of life cycle (larva, pupa, adult) of a population of mealworm beetles over time. In this example, the PSTs chose time as the variable for the X-axis. However, they initially used only the dates of data collection for values on the X-axis. The intervals between these values did not represent equal intervals of time. When the PSTs were prompted to identify the number of days between each value on the X-axis, they realized that some of the intervals represented 7 days while other intervals represented 10 days. They articulated that they had not used equal intervals. They also articulated that they could teach their students to create a scale of equal intervals by prompting the students to “skip counting” instead of just recording the dates of date collection. Therefore, it was important for the course instructors to continue to monitor and guide the PSTs as they applied their graphing skills in the development of lesson plans. Over time, the PSTs lesson plans began to show that they used graphing as a tool to engage their own students in seeing patterns, analyzing and discussing data, and modeling scientific phenomena (Table 4).

Table 4 (Click on image to enlarge)
Representative Excerpt From PST’s Lesson Plan

Over the course of the semester, we asked PSTs to share their experiences and their perspectives about teaching science in elementary school. Unsolicited, the PSTs described graphing as a tool for both teaching and assessing:

“For my evaluation I had the students pool their collected data and create a graph that explained what they had just completed with the number of coils and the strength of the magnet. I just love the fact that the students were the star scientists in this type of modeling.”

“In my class, we graph data and see how to apply math in our daily lives. Numbers are just numbers until we give them meaning. Graphing can give meaning to measurements and how it interacts with another variable such as time. I did a lesson about speed and time. I had the students make sense with real world applications and graphing. The students explored meanings rather than just taking science at face value. I think the making sense gives students a reason to want to learn more.”

“For assessment, a lot of that is done in their notebooks, I check for specific processes on certain days (charts, data, graphs, etc.) or I check for answers to certain questions. I can see what they know and answer any questions that students have. I comment on their thoughts and scientific knowledge that is brought out in the notebook. Using the notebooks and seeing the charts, data, and graphs really helps me gauge what concepts the students are grasping and which ones they are struggling with.”

Conclusion

Children in elementary school need access to analytical tools, such as graphing, that help them make sense of the world around them (NRC, 2012). In this article, we provide science teacher educators with a set of lessons to prepare preservice elementary teachers to use and teach graphing as a tool to (a) see patterns in data, (b) discuss and analyze data, (c) model scientific phenomena, and (d) teach and assess inquiry-based science.

We built this set of activities on the belief that PSTs need a strong knowledge foundation about the use of graphing as a tool to be able to apply it to their teaching and assessing (Bowen & Roth, 2005; Morris & Hiebert, 2017; Roth et. al, 1998). Therefore, we provided PSTs opportunities to analyze their conceptions about graphing and to also discuss, refine, and improve their use of graphing in different contexts.  To document progress and provide feedback, we reviewed PSTs’ written work samples and oral responses across the three lessons and across the field experiences and microteaching. We documented individual progress and provided feedback about the use of graphing to (a) see patterns in data, (b) discuss and analyze data, (c) model scientific phenomena, and (d) teach and assess inquiry-based science. Criteria for achieving these outcomes were incorporated into our course rubrics. Over time, we noticed that PSTs conceptions about graphing that were initially based on partial understandings, evolved and became more explicit. Compared to previous years, the use of graphing enabled these PSTs to be more descriptive, more precise, and more analytical when they made scientific observations, engaged in discussions, and problem solved.

While developing graphing abilities was a goal of the set of experiences, equally important was fostering the development of preservice teachers in viewing graphing, and its associated mathematical reasoning, as a tool for scientific inquiry rather than solely as something done in math. Compared to previous years, we noticed that these PSTs were more explicit in their lesson plans about how they used graphing as a tool to engage and assess student reasoning and scientific sense-making. The majority of PSTs showed in at least one of their three lesson plans that they were able to use graphing to support elementary school students in scientific sense-making and discovering or constructing understandings about science. These results are reflective of the novel and innovative approach we outlined in this article that guided PSTs to reflect and analyze their conceptions about graphing in a form that enabled them to apply those conceptions to new learning and teaching situations.

Finally, it is important to note that a limitation of this set of lessons is that each of the relationships that PSTs graphed represented a positive linear correlation. In future implementations, we think it is important to provide opportunities for PSTs to work with data that represent other types of relationships such as nonlinear, curved, exponential, etc. PSTs also need opportunities to work with, and explore, data for which no fully determined mathematical relationships emerge (this opportunity is available in Meyer, 2016). However, this set of lessons provided a starting point; linear relationships are a good place to start considering that linear relationships form the basis of many relationships in science.

References

Bowen, G.M., & Roth, W.M. (2005). Data and graph interpretation practices among preservice teachers. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 42, 1063-1088.

Coleman, J.M., McTigue, E.M., & Smolkin, L.B. (2011). Elementary teachers’ use of graphical representations in science teaching. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 22, 613-643.

Friel, S.N., Curcio, F.R., & Bright, G.W. (2001). Making sense of graphs: Critical factors influencing comprehension and instructional implications. Journal for Research In Mathematics Education, 32, 124-158.

Friendly, M. A. (2007). A brief history of data visualization. In C. Chen, W., & Hardl, A. Unwin (Eds.). Handbook of Computational Statistics: Data Visualization (pp. 15-56). Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag.

Gould, D., & Mitts, L. (2014). Eureka! Causal thinking about matter and molecules. Science Scope, 37(11), 47 – 56.

Jackson, J., Dukerich, L., & Hestenes, D. (2008). Modeling instruction: An effective model for science education. Science Educator, 17(1), 10-17.

Keys, C. & Bryan, L. (2001). Co-constructing inquiry-based science with teachers: Essential research for lasting reform. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 38, 631-645.

Lehrer, R. & Schauble, L. (2004). Modeling natural variation through distribution. ? American Educational Research Journal. 41, 635-679.

McKenzie, D.L. & Padilla, M.J. (1986). The construction and validation of the test of graphing in science (TOGS). Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 23, 571-579.

Meyer, D.Z. (2016). Comparing classroom inquiry and sociological account of science as a means of explicit-reflective learning of NOS/SI. Innovations in Science Teacher Education, 1(2). Retrieved from https://innovations.theaste.org/comparing-classroom-inquiry-and-sociological-account-of-science-as-a-means-of-explicit-reflective-learning-of-nossi/.

Morris, A.K., & Hiebert, J. (2017). Effects of teacher preparation courses: Do graduates use what they learned to plan mathematics lessons? American Educational Research Journal. 54, 524-567.

National Research Council (NRC). (1996). National science education standards. Washington, DC.

National Research Council (NRC) (2012). A framework for K-12 science education: Practices crosscutting concepts and core idea. Committee on conceptual framework for new K-12 Science Education Standards. Board on Science Education, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

National Research Council (NRC). (2013). Next generation science standards. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Roth, W.M., McGinn, M.K., & Bowen, G.M. (1998). How prepared are preservice teachers to teach scientific inquiry? Levels of performance in scientific representation practices. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 9, 25-48.

Szjka, S., Mumba, F., & Wise, K.C. (2011). Cognitive and attitudinal predictors related to line graphing achievement among elementary pre-service teachers. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 22, 563-578.

Wainer, H. (1992). Understanding graphs and tables. Educational Researcher, 21, 14-23.

 

Critical Response Protocol: Supporting Preservice Science Teachers in Facilitating Inclusive Whole-Class Discussions

Citation
Print Friendly, PDF & Email

Ellingson, C.L., Wieselmann, J.R., & Leammukda, F.D. (2021). Critical response protocol: Supporting preservice science teachers in facilitating inclusive whole-class discussions. Innovations in Science Teacher Education, 6(1). Retrieved from https://innovations.theaste.org/critical-response-protocol-supporting-preservice-science-teachers-in-facilitating-inclusive-whole-class-discussions/

by Charlene L. Ellingson, Minnesota State University, Mankato; Dr. Jeanna Wieselmann, Caruth Institute for Engineering Education; & Dr. Felicia Dawn Leammukda, Minnesota State University, St. Cloud

Abstract

Despite a large body of research on effective discussion in science classrooms, teachers continue to struggle to engage all students in such discussions. Whole-class discussions are particularly challenging to facilitate effectively and, therefore, often have a teacher-centered participation pattern. This article describes the Critical Response Protocol (CRP), a tool that disrupts teacher-centered discussion patterns in favor of a more student-centered structure that honors students’ science ideas. CRP originated in the arts community as a method for giving and receiving feedback to deepen critical dialog between artists and their audiences. In science classrooms, CRP can be used to elicit student ideas about scientific phenomena and invite wide participation while reducing the focus on “correct” responses. In this article, we describe our use of CRP with preservice science teachers. We first modeled the CRP process as it would be used with high school students in science classrooms, then discussed pedagogical considerations for implementing CRP within the preservice teachers’ classrooms. We conclude this article with a discussion of our insights about the opportunities and challenges of using CRP in science teacher education to support preservice teachers in leading effective whole-class discussion and attending to inclusive participation structures.

Innovations Journal articles, beyond each issue's featured article, are included with ASTE membership. If your membership is current please login at the upper right.

Become a member or renew your membership

References

Barton, C. (2018). On formative assessment in math: How diagnostic questions can help. American Educator, 42(2), 33-39.

Beghetto, R. A. (2009). Correlates of intellectual risk taking in elementary school science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 46, 210-223. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.20270

Cohen, E. G. (1990). Teaching in multiculturally heterogeneous classrooms: Findings from a model program. McGill Journal of Education, 26, 7-23.

Cohen, E. G., & Lotan, R. A. (1995). Producing equal-status interaction in the heterogeneous classroom. American Educational Research Journal, 32, 99-120. https://doi.org/10.3102%2F00028312032001099

Ellingson, C., Roehrig, G., Bakkum, K., & Dubinsky, J. M. (2016). Critical response protocol: A classroom tool for facilitating equitable critical discourse in science classrooms. The Science Teacher, 83(4), 51-54.

Evagorou, M., Erduran, S., & Mäntylä, T. (2015). The role of visual representations in scientific practices: from conceptual understanding and knowledge generation to ‘seeing’ how science works. International Journal of STEM Education, 2(11). doi:10.1186/s40594-015-0024-x

Gibson, J. D., Khanal, B. P., & Zubarev, E. R. (2007). Paclitaxel-functionalized gold nanoparticles. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 129, 11653–11661. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja075181k

Haverly, C., Barton, A. C., Schwarz, C. V., & Braaten, M. (2020). “Making space”: How novice teachers create opportunities for equitable sense-making in elementary science. Journal of Teacher Education, 71, 63–79. DOI://1d0o.i.1o1rg7/71/00.10127274/0807212148781010878006706

Hennessy, S. (2014). Bridging between research and practice: Supporting professional development through collaborative studies of classroom teaching with technology. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense Publishers.

Lerman, L., & Borstel, J. (2003). Liz Lerman’s critical response process: A method for getting useful feedback on anything you make, from dance to dessert. Dance Exchange, Inc.

Lewis, B. P., & Linder, D. E. (1997). Thinking about choking? Attentional processes and paradoxical performance. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 937 – 944. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0146167297239003

Mallow, J. V. (1978). A science anxiety program. American Journal of Physics, 46, 862. https://doi.org/10.1119/1.11409

Mallow, J. V. (2006). Science anxiety: Research and action. In J. J. Mintzes & W. H. Leonard (Eds.), Handbook of college science teaching (pp. 325-349). Arlington, VA: NSTA Press.

Mehan, H. (1979). Learning lessons: Social organization in the classroom. Cambridge: MA, Harvard University Press.

Meyer, D. K., & Smithenry, D. (2014). Scaffolding collective engagement. Teachers College Record, 116, 124.

Michaels, S., & O’Connor, C. (2012). Talk Science Primer. TERC, An Education Research and Development Organization, Cambridge: MA.

Mortimer, E. F., & Scott, P. H. (2003). Meaning making in secondary science classrooms. Berkshire, England: McGraw-Hill Education.

National Research Council. (2012). A framework for K-12 science education: Practices, crosscutting concepts, and core ideas. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

NGSS Lead States. (2013). Next Generation Science Standards: For states, by states. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Petkau, J. W. (2013). Critical response and pedagogic tensions in aesthetic space. Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global (1322974486).

Vandenberg, P. (1999). Lessons of inscription: Tutor training and the “professional conversation.” Writing Center Journal, 19(2), 59-83.

WIDA Consortium. 2006a. Annual Technical Report No. 1-Volume 1 of 3: Description, Validity, and Student Results (2004-2005). Technical Reports and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC). Available: https://wida.wisc.edu. [December 2018].

A 20-year Journey in Elementary and Early Childhood Science and Engineering Education: A Cycle of Reflection, Refinement, and Redesign

Citation
Print Friendly, PDF & Email

Sandifer, C., Lottero-Perdue, P., & Miranda, R.J. (2020). A 20-year journey in elementary and early childhood science and engineering education: A cycle of reflection, refinement, and redesign. Innovations in Science Teacher Education, 5(4). Retrieved from https://innovations.theaste.org/a-20-year-journey-in-elementary-and-early-childhood-science-and-engineering-education-a-cycle-of-reflection-refinement-and-redesign/

by Cody Sandifer, Towson University; Pamela S. Lottero-Perdue, Towson University; & Rommel J. Miranda, Towson University

Abstract

Over the past two decades, science and engineering education faculty at Towson University have implemented a number of course innovations in our elementary and early childhood education content, internship, and methods courses. The purposes of this paper are to: (1) describe these innovations so that faculty looking to make similar changes might discover activities or instructional approaches to adapt for use at their own institutions and (2) provide a comprehensive list of lessons learned so that others can share in our successes and avoid our mistakes. The innovations in our content courses can be categorized as changes to our inquiry approach, the addition of new out-of-class activities and projects, and the introduction of engineering design challenges. The innovations in our internship and methods courses consist of a broad array of improvements, including supporting consistency across course sections, having current interns generate advice documents for future interns, switching focus to the NGSS science and engineering practices (and modifying them, if necessary, for early childhood), and creating new field placement lessons.

Innovations Journal articles, beyond each issue's featured article, are included with ASTE membership. If your membership is current please login at the upper right.

Become a member or renew your membership

References

Banchi, H., & Bell, R. (2008). The many levels of inquiry. Science and Children, 46(2), 26-29.

Center for Educational Research. (1967). Conceptually Oriented Program in Elementary Science.  New York, NY: New York Center for Field Research and School Services, New York University.

Cunningham, C. M., & Kelly, G. J. (2017). Epistemic practices of engineering for education. Science Education, 101(3), 486-505. doi:10.1002/sce.21271

Elementary School Science Project. (1966). Elementary Science Study. Berkeley, CA: University of California, Berkeley.

Engineering is Elementary (EiE). (2011b). A stick in the mud: Evaluating a landscape. Boston, MA: Museum of Science.

Engineering is Elementary (EiE). (2011b). A sticky situation: Designing walls. Boston, MA: Museum of Science.

Engineering is Elementary (EiE). (2011c). The best of bugs: Designing hand pollinators. Boston, MA: Museum of Science.

Engineering is Elementary (EiE). (2011d). Lighten up: Designing lighting systems. Boston, MA: Museum of Science.

Engineering is Elementary (EiE). (2019). The engineering design process: A five-step process Retrieved January 28, 2019 from https://eie.org/overview/engineering-design-process

Goldberg, F., Robinson, S., Price, E., Harlow, D., Andrew, J., & McKean, M. (2018).  Next Generation Physical Science and Everyday Thinking.  Greenwich, CT: Activate Learning

Karplus, R. (1964). Science Curriculum Improvement Study. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 2(4), 293-303.

Lave, J. & Wegner, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral practice. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Lottero-Perdue, P.S. (2017a). Engineering design into science classrooms. In Settlage, J., Southerland, S., Smetana, L., & Lottero-Perdue, P.S. Teaching Science to Every Child: Using Culture as a Starting Point. (Third Edition). (pp. 207-266). New York, NY: Routledge.

Lottero-Perdue, P.S. (2017b). Pre-service elementary teachers learning to teach science-integrated engineering design PBL. In Saye, J. & Brush, T. (Eds.), Developing and supporting PBL practice: Research in K-12 and teacher education settings. (pp. 105-131). West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press.

Lottero-Perdue, P.S., Bolotin, S., Benyameen, R., Brock, E., and Metzger, E. (September 2015). The EDP-5E: A rethinking of the 5E replaces exploration with engineering design. Science and Children 53(1), 60-66.

Lottero-Perdue, P.S., Bowditch, M. Kagan, M. Robinson-Cheek, L., Webb, T., Meller, M. & Nosek, T. (November, 2016) An engineering design process for early childhood: Trying (again) to engineer an egg package. Science and Children, 54(3), 70-76.

Lottero-Perdue P.S., Haines, S., Baranowski, A. & Kenny, P. (2020). Designing a model shoreline: Creating habitat for terrapins and reducing erosion into the bay. Science and Children, 57 (7), 40-45.

Lottero-Perdue, P.S. & Parry, E. (2019, March). Scaffolding for failure: Upper elementary students navigate engineering design failure. Science and Children, 56(7), 86-89.

Lottero-Perdue, P. & Sandifer, C. (in press). Using engineering to explore the Moon’s height in the sky with future teachers. Science & Children.

Lottero-Perdue, P.S., Sandifer, C. & Grabia, K. (2017, December) “Oh No! Henrietta got out! Kindergarteners investigate forces and use engineering to corral an unpredictable robot.” Science and Children, 55(4), 46-53.

Michaels, S., Shouse, A.W., & Schweingruber, H. A. (2008). Ready, Set, Science. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.

National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School Officers (NGAC and CCSSO). 2010. Common core state standards. Washington, DC: NGAC and CCSSO.

National Research Council. (1996). National science education standards. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

National Research Council. (2000). Inquiry and the national science education standards: A guide for teaching and learning. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

National Research Council. (2012). A framework for K-12 science education: Practices, crosscutting concepts, and core ideas. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.

NGSS Lead States. (2013). Next generation science standards: For states, by states. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Sandifer, C. (2010, January).  Interns helping interns: Advice documents as meaningful authentic assessments. Talk presented at the meeting of the Association for Science Teacher Education, Sacramento, CA.

Sandifer, C. (2018). Activities in physical science. Unpublished course text.

Sandifer, C., Hermann, R. S., Cimino, K., & Selway, J. (2015). Early teaching experiences at Towson University: Challenges, lessons, and innovations. In C. Sandifer & E. Brewe (Eds.), Recruiting and Educating Future Physics Teachers: Case Studies and Effective Practices (pp. 129-145). College Park, MD: American Physical Society.

Sandifer, C., Lising, L., & Renwick, E.  (2007). Towson’s PhysTEC course improvement project, Years 1 and 2: Results and lessons learned. 2007 Conference Proceedings of the Association for Science Teacher Education.

Sandifer, C., Lising, L., & Tirocchi, L.  (2006). Our PhysTEC project:  Collaborating with a classroom teacher to improve an elementary science practicum.  2006 Conference Proceedings of the Association for Science Teacher Education.

Sandifer, C., Lising, L., Tirocchi, L, & Renwick, E.  (2019, February 28). Towson University’s Elementary PhysTEC project: Final report. Retrieved from https://www.phystec.org/institutions/Institution.cfm?ID=1275

Sandifer, C., & Lottero-Perdue, P.  (2014, April). When practice doesn’t make perfect: Common misunderstandings of the NGSS scientific practices. Workshop presented at the meeting of the National Science Teachers Association, Boston, MA.

Sandifer, C., & Lottero-Perdue, P. S.  (2019). Activities in Earth and space science and integrated engineering (2nd ed.). Unpublished course text.

 

 

A District-University Partnership to Support Teacher Development

Citation
Print Friendly, PDF & Email

Wade-Jaimes, K., Counsell, S., Caldwell, L., & Askew, R. (2020). A district-university partnership to support teacher development. Innovations in Science Teacher Education, 5(4). Retrieved from https://innovations.theaste.org/a-district-university-partnership-to-support-teacher-development/

by Katherine Wade-Jaimes, University of Memphis; Shelly Counsell, University of Memphis; Logan Caldwell, University of Memphis; & Rachel Askew, Vanderbilt University

Abstract

With the shifts in science teaching and learning suggested by the Framework for K-12 Science Education, in-service science teachers are being asked to re-envision their classroom practices, often with little support. This paper describes a unique partnership between a school district and a university College of Education, This partnership began as an effort to support in-service science teachers of all levels in the adoption of new science standards and shifts towards 3-dimensional science teaching. Through this partnership, we have implemented regular "Share-A-Thons," or professional development workshops for in-service science teachers. We present here the Share-A-Thons as a model for science teacher professional development as a partnership between schools, teachers, and university faculty. We discuss the logistics of running the Share-A-Thons, including challenges and next steps, provide teacher feedback, and include suggestions for implementation.

Innovations Journal articles, beyond each issue's featured article, are included with ASTE membership. If your membership is current please login at the upper right.

Become a member or renew your membership

References

Counsell, S. (2011). GRADES K-6-Becoming Science” Experi-mentors”-Tenets of quality professional development and how they can reinvent early science learning experiences. Science and Children49(2), 52.

Ingersoll, R. E. (2004). Who controls teachers’ work? Power and accountability in America’s schools. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Kennedy, M. M. (1999). Form and Substance in Mathematics and Science Professional Development. NISE brief3(2), n2.

Luft, J. A., & Hewson, P. W. (2014). Research on teacher professional development programs in science. Handbook of research on science education2, 889-909.

National Research Council (2007). Taking science to school: Learning and teaching science in grades K-8. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

National Research Council. (2012). A framework for K-12 science education: Practices, crosscutting concepts, and core ideas. National Academies Press.

NGSS Lead States. 2013. Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Opfer, V. D., & Pedder, D. (2011). Conceptualizing teacher professional learning. Review of educational research81, 376-407.

Palmer, D. (2004). Situational interest and the attitudes towards science of primary teacher education students. International Journal of Science Education26, 895-908.

Shapiro, B., & Last, S. (2002). Starting points for transformation resources to craft a philosophy to guide professional development in elementary science. Professional development of science teachers: Local insights with lessons for the global community, 1-20.

Supovitz, J. A., & Turner, H. M. (2000). The effects of professional development on science teaching practices and classroom culture. Journal of Research in Science Teaching: The Official Journal of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching37, 963-980.

Tennessee State Board of Education. (n.d.). Science. Retrieved from https://www.tn.gov/sbe/committees-and-initiatives/standards-review/science.html

Wilson, S. M., & Berne, J. (1999). Chapter 6: Teacher Learning and the Acquisition of Professional Knowledge: An Examination of Research on Contemporary Professlonal Development. Review of research in education24(1), 173-209

 

Facilitating Preservice Teachers’ Socioscientific Issues Curriculum Design in Teacher Education

Citation
Print Friendly, PDF & Email

Foulk, J.A., Sadler, T.D., & Friedrichsen, P.M. (2020). Facilitating preservice teachers’ socioscientific issues curriculum design in teacher education. Innovations in Science Teacher Education, 5(3). Retrieved from https://innovations.theaste.org/facilitating-preservice-teachers-socioscientific-issues-curriculum-design-in-teacher-education/

by Jaimie A. Foulk, University of Missouri - Columbia; Troy D. Sadler, University of North Carolina – Chapel Hill; & Patricia M. Friedrichsen, University of Missouri - Columbia

Abstract

Socioscientific issues (SSI) are contentious and ill-structured societal issues with substantive connections to science, which require an understanding of science, but are unable to be solved by science alone. Consistent with current K-12 science education reforms, SSI based teaching uses SSI as a context for science learning and has been shown to offer numerous student benefits. While K-12 teachers have expressed positive perceptions of SSI for science learning, they cite uncertainty about how to teach with SSI and lack of access to SSI based curricular materials as reasons for not utilizing a SSI based teaching approach. In response to this need we developed and taught a multi-phase SSI Teaching Module during a Science Methods course for pre-service secondary teachers (PSTs), designed to 1) engage PSTs as learners in an authentic SSI science unit; 2) guide PSTs in making sense of an SSI approach to teaching and learning; and 3) support PSTs in designing SSI-based curricular units. To share our experience with the Teaching Module and encourage teacher educators to consider ways of adapting such an approach to their pre-service teacher education contexts, we present our design and resources from the SSI Teaching Module and describe some of the ways PSTs described their challenges, successes, and responses to the experience, as well as considerations for teacher educators interested in introducing PSTs to SSI.

Introduction

Socioscientific issues (SSI) based teaching is a pedagogical philosophy consistent with current reform movements in K-12 science education (Zeidler, 2014b). SSI are societal issue[s] with substantive connections to science ideas (Sadler, Foulk, & Friedrichsen, 2017, p. 75), which lack structure, are controversial in nature, and for which science understanding is necessary but insufficient to offer complete solutions (Borgerding & Dagistan, 2018; Kolstø, 2006; Owens, Sadler, & Friedrichsen, 2019; Simonneaux, 2007). Because they are values-influenced, lack clear solutions, and bear significant, and often conflicting, implications for society, SSI tend to be contentious (Zeidler, 2014a).

Studies of SSI-focused learning contexts have identified many learner benefits. Students who participated in SSI-based learning experiences have demonstrated gains in understanding of science ideas (Dawson & Venville, 2010, 2013; Sadler, Klosterman, & Topcu, 2011; Sadler, Romine, & Topçu, 2016; Venville & Dawson, 2010), nature of science (Khishfe & Lederman, 2006; Lederman, Antink, & Bartos, 2014; Sadler, Chambers, & Zeidler, 2004); and scientific practices, such as modeling (Peel, Zangori, Friedrichsen, Hayes, & Sadler, 2019; Zangori, Peel, Kinslow, Friedrichsen, & Sadler, 2017) and argumentation (Venville & Dawson, 2010). Beyond these traditional learning outcomes, studies have also identified benefits such as improved reasoning skills (Kolstø et al., 2006; Sadler et al., 2004; Sadler & Zeidler, 2005; Zeidler, Applebaum, & Sadler, 2011); moral, ethical, and character development (Fowler, Zeidler, & Sadler, 2009; H. Lee, Abd‐El‐Khalick, & Choi, 2006); and increased enthusiasm and interest within science learning contexts (M. K. Lee & Erdogan, 2007; Saunders & Rennie, 2013).

The role of classroom teachers is of primary importance in facilitating reform-oriented learner experiences (Bybee, 1993) such as those based on SSI. Research has revealed that many classroom teachers hold favorable perceptions of SSI; however, despite some K-12 science teachers’ recognition of potential benefits to learners, and acknowledgements of the subsequent importance of incorporating SSI into science classroom contexts, research indicates that K-12 science teachers struggle to incorporate an SSI-focused pedagogy in their classrooms, and those who utilize SSI tend to do so infrequently and superficially (H. Lee et al., 2006; Lumpe, Haney, & Czerniak, 1998; Sadler, Amirshokoohi, Kazempour, & Allspaw, 2006; Saunders & Rennie, 2013). Three notable explanations for teachers’ omission of SSI-focused activities from their classrooms are: teachers’ unfamiliarity, lack of experience, and/or discomfort with an SSI-focused teaching approach (H. Lee et al., 2006; Sadler et al., 2006; Saunders & Rennie, 2013); teachers’ limited access to SSI-focused curricular resources (Sadler et al., 2006); and discrepancies between teachers’ perceptions of SSI and the philosophical basis of the pedagogy (Hansen & Olson, 1996; H. Lee et al., 2006; Sadler et al., 2006).

While a small number of prepared curricular resources for SSI have begun to be made available to teachers (cf. Kinslow & Sadler, 2018; Science Education Resource Center; The ReSTEM Institute; Zeidler & Kahn, 2014a), practical access to SSI curricula remains limited. Literature around SSI features an array of project-specific SSI-focused curricular resources on a variety of topics (Carson & Dawson, 2016; Christenson, Chang Rundgren, & Höglund, 2012; Dawson & Venville, 2010; Eilks, 2002; Eilks, Marks, & Feierabend, 2008; Friedrichsen, Sadler, Graham, & Brown, 2016; Kolstø, 2006; Lederman et al., 2014; H Lee et al., 2013; Peel et al., 2019; Sadler & Zeidler, 2005). However, only very few of the studies (Eilks, 2002; Friedrichsen et al., 2016; Zeidler et al., 2011) have focused on the process or products of SSI curricular design and the curricula from this research generally have not been distributed for classroom use. In addition, research has demonstrated the potentially transformative power to teachers of engaging in the design of reform-oriented, including SSI-focused, curricular resources (Coenders, Terlouw, Dijkstra, & Pieters, 2010; Eilks & Markic, 2011; Hancock, Friedrichsen, Kinslow, & Sadler, 2019; Zeidler et al., 2011).

In view of the demonstrated discrepancy between teachers’ perceptions and enactment of SSI; limited access to SSI curricular resources; the transformative value of engaging in reform-oriented curricular design; and the potential of SSI-based pedagogy to promote reform-oriented learning experiences; we view supporting teachers in the design of SSI-oriented curricula as a promising approach to educational reform. This project reflects that view. We sought to support pre-service science teachers (PSTs) in their uptake of SSI-based teaching in a Science Methods course through our design and teaching of an SSI Teaching Module intended to: 1) engage PSTs as learners in an authentic SSI science unit; 2) guide PSTs in making sense of an SSI approach to teaching and learning; and 3) support PSTs in designing SSI-based curricular units. The purpose of this paper is to describe our Teaching Module and share related resources with teacher educators, as well as to provide some examples of PSTs’ challenges, successes, and responses to the experience. It is our hope that the Teaching Module will serve as an inspiration for teacher educators interested in supporting future science teachers’ uptake of SSI.

SSI-TL – A Framework to Operationalize SSI-Based Pedagogy

Our group has developed the SSI Teaching and Learning (SSI-TL) Framework (Sadler et al., 2017) for the purpose of supporting teachers’ uptake of SSI-based teaching. Intended as a guide for classroom teachers, the SSI-TL framework highlights elements we consider to be essential to teaching science with SSI, while also remaining highly adaptable to various subdisciplines, courses, and classroom contexts in K-12 science education. SSI-TL is one instantiation of SSI-based teaching, developed from multiple projects that utilized research-based SSI frameworks featured in previous literature (Foulk, 2016; Friedrichsen et al., 2016; Klosterman & Sadler, 2010; Presley et al., 2013; Sadler, 2011; Sadler et al., 2015; Sadler et al., 2016). This project contributed to the development of SSI-TL, and we drew from an intermediate version of the framework throughout the project (See Figure 1).

Figure 1 (Click on image to enlarge)
SSI-TL Framework

SSI-TL specifies requisite components of SSI-based learning experiences, the sum total of which are necessary for a complete SSI-TL curricular unit. Such a unit consists of a cohesive, two- to three-week sequence of lessons designed around a particular SSI, to promote students’ achievement of a defined set of science learning objectives. Within any SSI-TL curricular unit, a focal SSI is foregrounded in the curricular sequence and revisited regularly throughout the unit, in order to serve as both motivation and context for learners’ engagement in authentic science practices and sensemaking about science ideas. A continuous focus on the selected SSI also guides students in exploration of societal dimensions of the issue; that is, the potential impacts of the issue on society, such as those of a social, political, or economic nature. Participation in an SSI-TL unit is intended to engage students in sensemaking about both the relevant science ideas and the societal dimensions of the issue. Student learning in SSI-based teaching is assessed with a culminating project in which learners synthesize their understanding of scientific and societal aspects relevant to the issue. In this project, our intermediate version of the SSI-TL framework served as both a representation of SSI-based teaching and a tool to support PSTs’ uptake of the approach.

The SSI Teaching Module in a Methods Course

Project Context, Goals, and Audience

The project described in this paper consisted of a six-week SSI Teaching Module that was implemented during a semester-long Science Methods course for secondary PSTs. The Science Methods course was the last in a sequence of three required methods courses in an undergraduate secondary science education program, and occurred immediately prior to the student teaching experience. The focus of the 16-week course was curricular planning and development, and the primary course goal was that PSTs would be able to design a coherent secondary science curricular unit, consisting of a two- to three-week sequence of related lessons organized around selected NGSS performance expectations. The purposes of the six-week SSI Teaching Module were to facilitate PSTs’ familiarity with SSI-based teaching; to explicate and challenge, as appropriate, PSTs’ perceptions about SSI; and to promote PSTs’ learning about SSI-based science teaching, as evidenced by their ability to develop cohesive science curricular units consistent with the SSI-TL framework.

A cohort of 13 PSTs in their final year of undergraduate coursework completed the SSI Teaching Module during Fall 2015. The first author developed and taught the SSI Teaching Module and the Science Methods course and conducted assessment of PSTs’ work in the course. The second author served in an advisory capacity during design, enactment, and assessment phases of the Teaching Module and Methods course. Both the second and third authors served as advisors during the writing stages of the project.

Project Design

The SSI Teaching Module consisted of three distinct phases, in which PSTs engaged with SSI-based science education from the perspectives of learner, teacher, and curriculum maker. (See SSI Teaching Module Schedule, below). In the first phase of the SSI Teaching Module, PSTs participated as learners of science in a sample secondary science unit designed using the SSI-TL framework, learning science content which was contextualized in an authentic SSI. (See SSI units for secondary science at our project website: http://ri2.missouri.edu/ri2modules.) In the second phase of the SSI Teaching Module, the PSTs spent time considering their SSI learning experience, this time from a teacher perspective, with explicit attention to the SSI-TL framework and key components of the sample SSI unit. Finally, in the third phase, the PSTs created SSI-based curricular units for use in their future secondary science classrooms. In all phases of the SSI Teaching Module, PSTs were asked to engage in personal reflection about their perceptions of SSI and its potential utility in their future teaching practice, with various writing prompts used during class, reflective writing assignments, and in-class discussion. More detailed description of each phase of the SSI Teaching Module follows (See Table 1).

Table 1 (Click on image to enlarge)
SSI Teaching Module Schedule

SSI Teaching Module – Phase 1: Learning Science with SSI

The first phase of the SSI Teaching Module focused on PSTs’ engagement with a sample SSI-TL unit. The sample unit was developed for an Advanced Exercise Science course at the secondary level, using NGSS standards relevant to the topic of energy systems, and presented through a nutritional science lens. The focal SSI for the nutrition unit was taxation of obesogenic foods. The SSI nutrition unit, as representation of the SSI-TL approach, engaged PSTs in several learning activities appropriate for incorporation into their own secondary-level SSI curricular unit designs. During this phase PSTs explored societal dimensions of the issue and engaged in sensemaking about the relevant science ideas, just as secondary students would do. Find the complete “Fat Tax” SSI-TL unit plan on our project website: http://ri2.missouri.edu/ri2modules/Fat Tax/intro.

The nutrition focus of the sample SSI unit was purposely selected for several reasons. First, this choice of topic leveraged the first author’s personal background and interest in nutritional sciences. Second, a pair of teaching partners in a local secondary school had approached the first author for help with preparing a unit for a new course they would be teaching. Finally, this topic offered opportunities for the methods students who had content backgrounds in different science disciplines to see the integration of diverse science ideas, and to build upon their own content knowledge. The SSI nutrition unit and the secondary course for which it was prepared represented authentic possibilities for PSTs’ future teaching assignments.

As specified in the SSI-TL framework, the SSI nutrition unit was introduced with a focal SSI. PSTs began by reading an article about a proposed “fat tax,” and were then asked to articulate and share ideas about the issue, providing reasoning to support their positions. Various positions were proposed, and a lively discussion followed. “Henry,” who had previously worked in a grocery store, shared initial support for the tax, justified by his personal observations of patterns in consumer buying habits. “Gregg” pushed back on what he considered to be stereotyping in Henry’s example, and argued that taxation of groups of food items toward controlling consumer choice was not within the purview of government agencies and could place an unnecessary burden on population subgroups such as college students and young families, who might depend on convenience foods during particular life phases. Various PSTs shared about personal and family experiences linking nutrition and health, which highlighted the challenge of defining “healthful” nutrition. The result of this introductory activity was PSTs’ recognition of their need to better understand both scientific and societal dimensions of the issue.

Because societal dimensions of SSI are a key focus of SSI-based teaching, and because research indicates that science teachers may struggle most with this component of SSI (Sadler et al., 2006), the relevant social aspects of the nutrition focal SSI were heavily featured in the SSI Teaching Module. An example of a nutrition lesson that emphasized societal dimensions of the focal SSI was one that incorporated an SSI Timeline activity (Foulk, Friedrichsen, & Sadler, 2020). In small groups, PSTs explored historically significant nutrition recommendations, summarizing their findings and posting them on a collaborative class timeline. Then the PSTs discussed their collective findings, comparing and contrasting nutrition recommendations through the years, and proposing significant historical events that may have impacted recommendations. Next, the small groups reconvened to research scientific, political, and economic events, which had been selected for their historical significance to nutritional health. PSTs summarized the impact of their assigned events, color coded according to the nature of impacts on historical nutritional recommendations. The result was a very engaged group of learner-participants, and a great deal of discussion about their new understandings of nutrition policy. Following the introduction of the issue and participation in this timeline activity, PSTs expressed an awareness that meaningful interpretation and assessment of commonly shared nutrition advice (e.g., “eat everything in moderation” or “avoid cholesterol and saturated fat”) depends on an understanding of scientific ideas about nutrition. Specifically, the PSTs recognized their need to be able to make sense of the structure and function of nutrition macromolecules and their significance in metabolic pathways. As learners, PSTs benefitted from this activity by identifying science concepts they needed to know in order to address the focal issue (See Figure 2 and Figure 3).

Figure 2 (Click on image to enlarge)
SSI Timeline Activity

Figure 3 (Click on image to enlarge)
SSI Timeline Categories of Societal Dimensions

SSI Teaching Module – Phase 2: Teaching Science with SSI

The second phase of the SSI Teaching Module allowed PSTs to reflect on their learner experiences with the SSI nutrition unit, from the perspective of teachers. After participating in selected portions of the SSI nutrition unit, the PSTs began the process of unpacking their experience and making sense of the teaching approach. They were first asked to inspect the SSI-TL framework, and then they received written copies of the SSI nutrition unit for comparison. In small groups PSTs discussed elements of the framework they were able to distinguish in the nutrition unit, as well as the purposes they saw for each activity they had identified. A whole class discussion of the unit resulted in a mapping of the unit to the SSI-TL framework (See Figure 4).

Figure 4 (Click on image to enlarge)
Unit Map

In another lesson during the second phase of the SSI Teaching Module, a whole class discussion of the philosophical assumptions of the SSI-TL framework helped PSTs to consider broader educational purposes of the approach (Zeidler, 2014a). The instructor again provided a copy of the framework and asked PSTs to consider ways it compared and contrasted to their experiences as learners of science, and their ideas about teaching science. During the discussion, “Travis” shared, “I would’ve eaten this up as a high school student, because I didn’t always like science classes. I think connecting science to real life is a great way to reach students who might not like science otherwise.” Conversely, “Dale” expressed his concerns about shaking up tried and true teaching methods in his subdiscipline, arguing that there are more beneficial ways to teach than forcing science learning into SSI: “Everything we teach at the high school level for physics was settled 200 years ago. Why should students spend time looking at news stories and history?” The group revisited these conversations about educational philosophy and socioscientific issues frequently.

Following a whole class discussion about the SSI-TL framework and nutrition unit as an exemplar, PSTs used the framework to collaboratively analyze examples of externally created SSI-focused curricula. Small groups identified components of SSI-based teaching such as the focal issue, opportunities to consider societal dimensions of the issue, and connections to relevant science ideas. (Friedrichsen et al., 2016; Schibuk, 2015; Zeidler & Kahn, 2014a, 2014b, 2014c). Finally, individual PSTs completed a structured analysis of these assigned SSI curricular units. This activity served to further help the PSTs in identifying key components of SSI-based science curricula, and to see varied ways that classroom activities, lessons, and units might be created to align with the approach. See the analysis rubric tool designed to support PSTs’ individual curricular analyses (See Figure 5).

Figure 5 (Click on image to enlarge)
Curriculum Analysis Rubric

SSI Teaching Module – Phase 3: Designing SSI Curricula

The third and final phase of the SSI Teaching Module focused on curricular design. Because curricular design was the primary goal of the Science Methods course, activities prior to the SSI Teaching Module had been designed to engage PSTs in utilizing NGSS and other educational standards, as well as in structuring and planning for meaningful learning activities in secondary science classrooms. This phase of the SSI Teaching Module was designed to build upon the PSTs’ prior experiences with elements of curriculum planning, and to integrate them with the activities of the previous phases of the module.

Over a series of lessons, in various formats, and with numerous feedback opportunities, the PSTs were supported in their development of a cohesive SSI-focused curricular unit designed around the SSI-TL framework, which served as the culminating course project. With regular instructor feedback, in both in-class collaborative settings and as out-of-class assignments, PSTs selected topics applicable to their science certification areas, brainstormed potential focal SSIs in which to contextualize their science units, and identified NGSS standards most relevant to their topics. In addition to feedback from both instructor comments and class discussions, PSTs used several resources intended as tools to guide their process, including the SSI-TL framework, written requirements for the SSI Curriculum Design task, access to the SSI nutrition unit from phase one of the SSI Teaching Module, and an electronic template in which to create their units (See Figure 6).

Figure 6 (Click on image to enlarge)
Curriculum Design Task Requirements

All activities in phase three of the SSI Teaching Module served to help PSTs draft detailed unit overviews consisting of a two- to three-week sequence of lessons with multiple detailed lesson plans, specifically focused on introducing the focal SSI, exploring societal dimensions of the issue, and activities for mastery of related science content ideas. Assessment of PSTs’ units was based upon a detailed scoring rubric collaboratively constructed with the PSTs during the third phase of the Teaching Module. Together the course instructor and PSTs used the Curriculum Design Task Requirements and the SSI-TL framework, as well as the Curriculum Analysis Rubric, to prioritize elements and characteristics of SSI units. Finished units were later assessed for alignment to the SSI-TL framework in terms of unit structure, principles of SSI, and general quality of activities and lessons. See the scoring rubric for the unit design task, below. Note also that NGSS-aligned lesson plan design was a requirement for the PSTs in a previous methods course and continued as an expectation throughout PSTs’ education program. Selected PSTs’ SSI unit design products are summarized (See Figure 7 and Table 2).

Figure 7 (Click on image to enlarge)
SSI Unit Design Task – Scoring Rubric

 

Table 2 (Click on image to enlarge)
Table of Selected PST Curricular Units

 

Discussion & Conclusion

In this project, we sought address the tension between K-12 science teachers’ favorable perceptions of SSI-based pedagogy and their simultaneous unlikelihood to utilize SSI in their science classrooms. Specifially, we designed and implemented an SSI Teaching Module intended to leverage the transformative potential of the curriculum design process, in an effort to address commonly cited barriers to SSI-based pedagogy enactment, including: unfamiliarity or discomfort with SSI-based teaching; lack of access to SSI curricular resources; and misalignment between teachers’ perceptions and the pedagogical philosophy of SSI. We observed several specific examples of favorable impacts for the PST participants in this experience.

First, PSTs expressed excitement about learning with SSI. In a whole class conversation following phase one of the teaching module, Adam described his positive experience as a learner of SSI. Referring specifically to the use of SSI and related societal dimensions in the learning experience, he commented, “I think as a [secondary] student I would’ve been, like, sucked in from the very first day of the nutrition unit.” Adam’s sentiment echoed the enthusiasm that Travis had clearly demonstrated during phase one of the SSI Teaching Module. Having previously spoken to the first author privately regarding his uncertainty about a career path in education, Travis exceeded task expectations during the learner phase of the project. In ways that were atypical for him, Travis assumed leadership responsibilities for his group, encouraging his peers to explore and make connections among science and societal dimensions of the issue they were studying. On one occasion, Travis stayed after class to make additional contributions to the collaborative activity from that day’s lesson, describing to the first author his own engagement during participation in the SSI nutrition unit in class. During a whole class discussion in phase two of the SSI Teaching Module, Travis spoke favorably of his firsthand experience with SSI and enthusiastically shared with his peers his perception of the potential for SSI to promote learner engagement, particularly for those students who, like himself, are likely to find traditional K-12 science coursework unenjoyable.

Second, PSTs expressed enthusiasm for teaching with SSI during phases two and three of the SSI Teaching Module. In class conversations about the SSI-TL framework as well as in written reflections about SSI unit design required with the Unit Design Task, multiple PSTs expressed enthusiasm for SSI and plans to use it, despite its challenges. For example, after designing his unit, “Cooper” wrote, “I found that creating this [SSI] unit about waves was challenging, but also sort of exciting, because it makes me think about how much I’m looking forward to being a teacher.” Similarly, during our whole class discussion about the philosophical underpinnings of SSI, Adam repeatedly expressed his perception of the value of teaching science with SSI. Adam’s SSI curricular unit design was exceptional for his thoughtful choice of issue and the complex connections he made among science ideas and societal dimensions related to the issue, and his comments throughout the learner experience indicated his consideration of the challenges and possible solutions to utilizing SSI in the classroom. During his third year of teaching, Adam reached out to the first author to describe his own use of SSI-based pedagogy and asked for help in supporting veteran teachers in his department to take up the approach. Adam expressed a highly favorable view of teaching with SSI, and the project seemed to prepare him to do so.

Finally, PSTs demonstrated success in designing coherent SSI-TL curricular resources. Consistent with our framework, we considered an SSI unit to be successfully designed if it met the criteria specified in the Curriculum Design Task and Scoring Rubric, by including essential elements and characteristics of SSI and by representing the intent of the approach. Regarding elements and characteristics of SSI and by representing the intent of the approach. Regarding elements and characteristics, a unit overview was required, with specific reference to the science topic and related standards from NGSS, a thorough explanation of pertinent science ideas, and the selected focal SSI in which the unit was contextualized. The overview would also include a brief timeline describing a coherent sequence of lessons related to the topic. In addition, units were to include detailed plans for three specific types of lesson: introduction of the focal issue, exploration of societal dimensions of the issue, and explicit sensemaking about science ideas. Finally, a successful unit would describe plans for assessment, including requirements for a culminating unit project in which learners would demonstrate understanding of science ideas and societal dimensions related to the issue. Throughout the unit design, the selected SSI would feature prominently, and activities would allow for students’ meaningful sensemaking about the science ideas and societal dimensions relevant to the issue.

With participation in the SSI Teaching Module, support from their instructor, and interactions with the learning community in their methods course, each of our participant PSTs satisfied the requirements of the unit design task and designed curricular units consistent with the SSI-TL framework. PSTs were able to identify learning standards relevant to their selected science topics, provide explanations of their topics, and contextualize science learning opportunities within authentic, real-world issues. In addition, PSTs were able to create broad, cohesive overviews of their units, as well as detailed plans for specific lessons. Most notable with regard to the emphasis on SSI, PSTs were able to select relevant, appropriate socioscientific issues for their topics, and to thoughtfully weave these issues into their unit designs. PSTs reflected about general struggles related to selecting focal issues or integrating science ideas and societal dimensions, and the experiences in the SSI Teaching module that they found especially helpful, such as small group discussions during the planning process, and peer feedback on the drafts of their units.

Consistent with current calls for science education reform, we know SSI offer valuable opportunities for student learning, and we believe SSI curriculum design to be a beneficial way to support teachers’ uptake of SSI-based teaching. Furthermore, we view teacher education to be an appropriate context to support pre-service and early career teachers’ in making sense of and adopting the approach. We share the design of SSI Teaching Module to support other teacher educators in innovating pre-service methods courses toward promoting PSTs’ uptake of SSI.

References

Borgerding, L. A., & Dagistan, M. (2018). Preservice science teachers’ concerns and approaches for teaching socioscientific and controversial issues. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 29, 283-306.

Bybee, R. W. (1993). Leadership, Responsibility, and Reform in Science Education. Science Educator, 2(1), 1-9.

Carson, K., & Dawson, V. (2016). A teacher professional development model for teaching socioscientific issues. Teaching science, 62(1), 28.

Christenson, N., Chang Rundgren, S.-N., & Höglund, H.-O. (2012). Using the SEE-SEP Model to Analyze Upper Secondary Students’ Use of Supporting Reasons in Arguing Socioscientific Issues. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 21, 342-352.

Coenders, F. G., Terlouw, C., Dijkstra, S., & Pieters, J. (2010). The effects of the design and development of a chemistry curriculum reform on teachers’ professional growth: A case study. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 21, 535-557.

Dawson, V., & Venville, G. (2010). Teaching strategies for developing students’ argumentation skills about socioscientific issues in high school genetics. Research in Science Education, 40, 133-148.

Dawson, V., & Venville, G. (2013). Introducing High School Biology Students to Argumentation About Socioscientific Issues. Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 13(4).

Eilks, I. (2002). Teaching ‘Biodiesel’: A sociocritical and problem-oriented approach to chemistry teaching and students’ first views on it. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 3(1), 77-85.

Eilks, I., & Markic, S. (2011). Effects of a Long-Term Participatory Action Research Project on Science Teachers’ Professional Development. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 7(3).

Eilks, I., Marks, R., & Feierabend, T. (2008). Science education research to prepare future citizens–Chemistry learning in a socio-critical and problem-oriented approach. Promoting successful science learning–The worth of science education research, 75-86.

Foulk, J. A. (2016). Changes in pre-service teachers’ ideas about socioscientific issues teaching and learning in a science methods course. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, Baltimore, Maryland.

Foulk, J. A., Friedrichsen, P., & Sadler, T. D. (2020). Embedding Science in Socio-scientific Issues: Teaching with A Timeline Activity. The Science Teacher, 87(7),

Fowler, S. R., Zeidler, D. L., & Sadler, T. D. (2009). Moral sensitivity in the context of socioscientific issues in high school science students. International Journal of Science Education, 31, 279-296.

Friedrichsen, P., Sadler, T. D., Graham, K., & Brown, P. (2016). Design of a socio-scientific issue curriculum unit: Antibiotic resistance, natural selection, and modeling. International Journal of Designs for Learning, 7(1).

Hancock, T. S., Friedrichsen, P. J., Kinslow, A. T., & Sadler, T. D. (2019). Selecting Socio-scientific Issues for Teaching. Science & Education, 28, 639-667.

Hansen, K. H., & Olson, J. (1996). How teachers construe curriculum integration: The science, technology, society (STS) movement as Bildung. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 28, 669-682.

Khishfe, R., & Lederman, N. (2006). Teaching nature of science within a controversial topic: Integrated versus nonintegrated. Journal of Research in Science Teaching: The Official Journal of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, 43, 395-418.

Kinslow, A. T., & Sadler, T. D. (2018). Making Science Relevant: Using Socio-Scientific Issues to Foster Critical Thinking, 40.

Klosterman, M. L., & Sadler, T. D. (2010). Multi‐level Assessment of Scientific Content Knowledge Gains Associated with Socioscientific Issues‐based Instruction. International Journal of Science Education, 32, 1017-1043.

Kolstø, S. D. (2006). Patterns in Students’ Argumentation Confronted with a Risk‐focused Socio‐scientific Issue. International Journal of Science Education, 28, 1689-1716.

Kolstø, S. D., Bungum, B., Arnesen, E., Isnes, A., Kristensen, T., Mathiassen, K., . . . Ulvik, M. (2006). Science students’ critical examination of scientific information related to socioscientific issues. Science Education, 90, 632-655.

Lederman, N. G., Antink, A., & Bartos, S. (2014). Nature of science, scientific inquiry, and socio-scientific issues arising from genetics: A pathway to developing a scientifically literate citizenry. Science & Education, 23, 285-302.

Lee, H., Abd‐El‐Khalick, F., & Choi, K. (2006). Korean science teachers’ perceptions of the introduction of socio‐scientific issues into the science curriculum. Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 6, 97-117.

Lee, H., Yoo, J., Choi, K., Kim, S.-W., Krajcik, J., Herman, B. C., & Zeidler, D. L. (2013). Socioscientific Issues as a Vehicle for Promoting Character and Values for Global Citizens. International Journal of Science Education, 35(12).

Lee, M. K., & Erdogan, I. (2007). The effect of science–technology–society teaching on students’ attitudes toward science and certain aspects of creativity. International Journal of Science Education, 29, 1315-1327.

Lumpe, Haney, & Czerniak. (1998). Science teacher beliefs and intentions regarding the use of cooperative learning. School Science and Mathematics, 98, 123-135.

Owens, D. C., Sadler, T. D., & Friedrichsen, P. (2019). Teaching Practices for Enactment of Socio-scientific Issues Instruction: an Instrumental Case Study of an Experienced Biology Teacher. Research in Science Education. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11165-018-9799-3

Peel, A., Zangori, L., Friedrichsen, P., Hayes, E., & Sadler, T. (2019). Students’ model-based explanations about natural selection and antibiotic resistance through socio-scientific issues-based learning. International Journal of Science Education, 41, 510-532.

Presley, M. L., Sickel, A. J., Muslu, N., Merle-Johnson, D., Witzig, S. B., Izci, K., & Sadler, T. D. (2013). A Framework for Socio-Scientific Issues Based Education. Science Educator, 22(1), 26-32.

Sadler, T. D. (2011). Socio-scientific issues in the classroom: Teaching, learning and research (Vol. 39): Springer Science & Business Media.

Sadler, T. D., Amirshokoohi, A., Kazempour, M., & Allspaw, K. M. (2006). Socioscience and ethics in science classrooms: Teacher perspectives and strategies. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 43, 353-376.

Sadler, T. D., Chambers, F. W., & Zeidler, D. L. (2004). Student conceptualizations of the nature of science in response to a socioscientific issue. International Journal of Science Education, 26, 387-409.

Sadler, T. D., Foulk, J. A., & Friedrichsen, P. J. (2017). Evolution of a Model for Socio-Scientific Issue Teaching and Learning. International Journal of Education in Mathematics, Science and Technology, 5(1).

Sadler, T. D., Friedrichsen, P., Graham, K., Foulk, J., Tang, N., & Menon, D. (2015). The derivation of an instructional model and design processes for socioscientific issues-based teaching. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, Chicago IL.

Sadler, T. D., Klosterman, M. L., & Topcu, M. S. (2011). Learning science content and socio-scientific reasoning through classroom explorations of global climate change. In Socio-scientific Issues in the Classroom (pp. 45-77): Springer.

Sadler, T. D., Romine, W. L., & Topçu, M. S. (2016). Learning science content through socio-scientific issues-based instruction: A multi-level assessment study. International Journal of Science Education, 38, 1622-1635.

Sadler, T. D., & Zeidler, D. L. (2005). Patterns of informal reasoning in the context of socioscientific decision making. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 42, 112-138.

Saunders, K. J., & Rennie, L. J. (2013). A Pedagogical Model for Ethical Inquiry into Socioscientific Issues In Science. Research in Science Education, 43(1).

Schibuk, E. (2015). Teaching the Manhattan Project. The Science Teacher, 82(7), 27.

Science Education Resource Center. Using Issues to Teach Science. Pedagogy in Action: Connecting Theory to Practice. Retrieved from https://serc.carleton.edu/sp/library/issues/examples.html

Simonneaux, L. (2007). Argumentation in Science Education: An Overview. In S. Erduran & M. P. Jiménez-Aleixandre (Eds.), Argumentation in Science Education: Perspectives from Classroom-Based Research (pp. 179-199). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

The ReSTEM Institute. [RI]^2 Modules. Rigorous Investigations of Relevant Issues. Retrieved from http://ri2.missouri.edu/ri2modules

Venville, G., & Dawson, V. (2010). The impact of a classroom intervention on grade 10 students’ argumentation skills, informal reasoning, and conceptual understanding of science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 47, 952-977.

Zangori, L., Peel, A., Kinslow, A., Friedrichsen, P., & Sadler, T. D. (2017). Student development of model‐based reasoning about carbon cycling and climate change in a socio‐scientific issues unit. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 54, 1249-1273.

Zeidler, D. L. (2014a). Socioscientific issues as a curriculum emphasis: Theory, research, and practice. In Handbook of Research on Science Education, Volume II (pp. 711-740): Routledge.

Zeidler, D. L. (2014b). STEM education- A deficit framework for the twenty first century? A sociocultural socioscientific response.

Zeidler, D. L., Applebaum, S. M., & Sadler, T. D. (2011). Enacting a socioscientific issues classroom: Transformative transformations. In Socio-scientific issues in the classroom (pp. 277-305): Springer.

Zeidler, D. L., & Kahn, S. (2014a). It’s Debatable!: Using Socioscientific Issues to Develop Scientific Literacy K-12: NSTA press.

Zeidler, D. L., & Kahn, S. (2014b). “Mined” Over Matter. In It’s Debatable!: Using Socioscientific Issues to Develop Scientific Literacy K-12 (pp. 221-260): NSTA Press.

Zeidler, D. L., & Kahn, S. (2014c). “Pharma’s” Market. In It’s Debatable!: Using Socioscientific Issues to Develop Scientific Literacy K-12 (pp. 262-292): NSTA Press.

 

 

Food Pedagogy as an Instructional Resource in a Science Methods Course

Citation
Print Friendly, PDF & Email

Medina-Jerez, W., & Dura, L. (2020). Food pedagogy as an instructional resource in a science methods course. Innovations in Science Teacher Education, 5(3). Retrieved from https://innovations.theaste.org/food-pedagogy-as-an-instructional-resource-in-a-science-methods-course/

by William Medina-Jerez, University of Texas at El Paso; & Lucia Dura, University of Texas at El Paso

Abstract

This article explores the integration of culturally relevant practices and student expertise into lesson planning in a university-level science methods course for preservice elementary teachers (PSETs). The project utilized a conceptual framework that combines food pedagogy and funds of knowledge, modeling an approach to lesson design that PSETs can use in their future classrooms to bring students’ worldviews to the forefront of science learning. The article gives an overview of the conceptual framework and the origins of the project. It describes the steps involved in the design, review, and delivery of lessons by PSETs and discusses implications for instructional practices in science teacher education and science learning in elementary schools. The article concludes with a discussion of major outcomes of the use of this framework, as evidenced by PSET pre- and post- project reflections: student-centered curriculum development, increased PSET self-confidence, integrated learning for both PSET and the students, and sustained levels of engagement.​

Innovations Journal articles, beyond each issue's featured article, are included with ASTE membership. If your membership is current please login at the upper right.

Become a member or renew your membership

References

Abarca, M. (2006). Voices in the kitchen: views of food and the world from working-class Mexican and Mexican-American women. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Alvarez, S. (2017). Community Literacies en Confianza: Learning from Bilingual After-School Programs. Urbana, Illinois: NCTE.

Benavides, R., & Medina-Jerez, W. (2017). No Puedo, I don’t get it: Assisting Spanglish- speaking students in the science classroom. The Science Teacher, 84(4), 30-35.

Bouillion, L. M. & Gomez, L. M. (2001). Connecting school and community with science learning: Real world problems and school community partnerships as contextual scaffolds. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 38, 878-898.

Bryan, L. A., Tippins, D. J. (2005). The Monets, Van Goghs, and Renoirs of science education: Writing impressionist tales as a strategy for facilitating prospective teachers’ reflections on science experiences. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 16, 227-239.

Bybee, R. W. (2014). The 5E instructional model: Personal reflections and contemporary implications. Science & Children, 51(8), 10-13.

Creel Falcon, K. (2018). Friday night tacos: Exploring Midwestern borderlands through familial women’s oral histories. The Journal of Mujeres Activas en Letras y Cambio Social, 17(2), 66-93.

DePaola, T. (1978). The popcorn book. Holiday House.

Flowers, R., & Swan, E. (2012). Introduction: Why food? Why pedagogy? Why adult education? Australian Journal of Adult Learning. 52, 419-430.

Gallard, A. J. (1992). Creating a multicultural learning environment in science classrooms. F. Lawrenz, K. Cochran, J. Krajcik & P. Simpson, Research matters…To the science teacher, 51-58.

Gonzalez, N., Moll, L. C., & Amanti, C. (Eds.). (2005). Funds of knowledge (1st ed. Vol. 2009 Reprint). New York: Routledge.

Hammond, L., & Brandt, C. B. (2004). Science and cultural process: Defining an anthropological approach to science education. Studies in Science Education 40, 1- 47.

Hanuscin, D. L., Lee, M. H., & Akerson, V. L. (2011). Elementary teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge for teaching the nature of science. Science Education, 95, 145-167.

Jegede, O. (1994). Traditional Cosmology and Collateral Learning in Non-Western Science Classrooms. Research and Evaluation Unit Distance Education Center. University of Southern Queensland. Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia.

Ladson-Billings, G. (1995). But that’s just good teaching! The case for culturally relevant pedagogy. Theory into Practice, 34, 159-165.

Ladson-Billings, G. (2014). Culturally relevant pedagogy 2.0: aka the remix. Harvard Educational Review, 84, 74-84.

Mensah, F. M. (2011). A case for culturally relevant teaching in science education and lessons learned for teacher education. The Journal of Negro Education, 80, 296-309.

Moll, L. C., Amanti, C., Neff, D., & Gonzalez, N. (1992). Funds of knowledge for teaching: Using a qualitative approach to connect homes and classrooms. Theory Into Practice, 31, 132-141.

NGSS Lead States. (2013). Next generation science standards. For states, by states. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Nieto, S. (2004). Affirming diversity: The sociopolitical context of multicultural education (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon

Steinberg, R., Wyner, Y., Borman, G., & Salame, I. L. (2015). Targeted courses in inquiry science for future elementary school teachers. Journal of College Science Teaching, 44(6), 51-56.

Swan, E. & Flowers, R. (2015). Clearing up the table: Food pedagogies and environmental education—contributions, challenges and future agendas. Australian Journal of Environmental Education, 31(1), 146-164.

Van Maanen, J. (1998). Tales of the field: On writing ethnography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Windschitl, M. (2006). Why we can’t talk to one another about science education reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 87, 349-355.

Woolley, K., & Fishbach, A. (2017). A recipe for friendship: similar food consumption promotes trust and cooperation. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 27(1), 1-10.

A Framework for Science Exploration: Examining Successes and Challenges for Preservice Teachers

Citation
Print Friendly, PDF & Email

Croce, K. (2020). A framework for science exploration: Examining successes and challenges for preservice teachers. Innovations in Science Teacher Education, 5(2). Retrieved from https://innovations.theaste.org/a-framework-for-science-exploration-examining-successes-and-challenges-for-preservice-teachers/

by Keri-Anne Croce, Towson University

Abstract

Undergraduate preservice teachers examined the Science Texts Analysis Model during a university course. The Science Texts Analysis Model is designed to support teachers as they help students prepare to engage with the arguments in science texts. The preservice teachers received instruction during class time on campus before employing the model when teaching science to elementary and middle school students in Baltimore city. This article describes how the preservice teachers applied their knowledge of the Science Texts Analysis Model within this real world context. Preservice teachers’ reactions to the methodology are examined in order to provide recommendations for future college courses.

Innovations Journal articles, beyond each issue's featured article, are included with ASTE membership. If your membership is current please login at the upper right.

Become a member or renew your membership

References

Arnold, N. (2013). Comment ca marche? Moteurs et voitures. Paris: Gallimard Jeunesse

Croce, K. (2014). Assessment of Burmese refugee students’ meaning making of scientific informational texts. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 14, 389-424.

Croce, K. (2015). Latino(a) and Burmese elementary school students reading scientific informational texts: The interrelationship of the language of the texts, students’ talk, and conceptual change theory. Linguistics and Education, 29, 94-106.

Croce, K. (2017). Navigating assessment with linguistically diverse learners. Charlotte: Information Age Publishing

Colman, J. & Goldston, J. (2011). What do you see? Science and Children, 49(1), 42-47.

Colman, J. & McTigue, E. (2013). Methods & Strategies: Unlocking the power of visual communication. Science and Children, 50(5), 73-77.

Cosgrove, B. (2004). Weather. New York: DK Publishing.

Dusling, J. (1998). Bugs! Bugs! Bugs! New York: DK Publishing

Fang, Z. & Coatom, S. (2013). Disciplinary literacy: What you want to know about it. Journal of Adolescent & Adult literacy, 56, 627-632.

Gibbons, G. (1991). From seed to plant. New York: Holiday House.

Green, R. (1986). Caterpillars. New York: Mondo publishing

Halliday, M.A.K. & Hasan, R. (1985). Language, context, and text: Aspects of language in a social semiotic perspective. New York: Oxford University Press

Kress, G. (1999). Genre and the changing contexts for English language arts. Language Arts, 76, 461-469.

Mawyer and Johnson (2017). Read like a scientist. The Science Teacher, 84(10). 43-48.

Miller, D. & Czegan, D. (2016). Integrating the liberal arts and chemistry: A series of general chemistry assignments to develop science literacy. Journal of Chemical Education, 93, 864-869.

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2017). Seeing students learn science: Integrating assessment and instruction in the classroom. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

National Research Council. (2012). A framework for K–12 science education: Practices, crosscutting concepts, and core ideas. Committee on a conceptual framework for new K–12. Science education standards. Board on science education, Division of behavioral and social sciences and education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Next Generation Science Standards (2013). Connections to the Common Core Standards for literacy in science and technical subjects. http://static.nsta.org/ngss/AppendixM-ConnectionsToTheCCSSForLiteracy-6.12.13.pdf

Shanahan, T. & Shanahan, C. (2012). What is disciplinary literacy and why does it matter? Topics in Language Disorders, 32(1), 7-18.

Shore, L. (2010). How to make slime. Mankato: MN, Capstone Press.

Simon, S. (1999).Tornadoes. New York: HarperCollins Publishing.

Simon, S. (2006). Volcanoes. New York: HarperCollins Publishing.

Parsons, A. (1990). Amazing Spiders. Dorling Kindersley: London.

Partnership for 21st Century Learning. (2007). Framework for 21st Century Learning. http://www.p21.org/our-work/p21-framework

Wicks, M. (2016). Science Comics: Coral Reefs: Cities of the Ocean. New York: First Second.

Wiesner, D. (2006). Flotsam. New York: Clarion Books

Enacting Wonder-infused Pedagogy in an Elementary Science Methods Course

Citation
Print Friendly, PDF & Email

Gilbert, A., & Byers, C.C. (2020). Enacting wonder-infused pedagogy in an elementary science methods course. Innovations in Science Teacher Education, 5(1). Retrieved from https://innovations.theaste.org/enacting-wonder-infused-pedagogy-in-an-elementary-science-methods-course/

by Andrew Gilbert, George Mason University; & Christie C. Byers, George Mason University

Abstract

Future elementary teachers commonly experience a sense of disconnection and lack of confidence in teaching science, often related to their own negative experiences with school science. As a result, teacher educators are faced with the challenge of engaging future teachers in ways that build confidence and help them develop positive associations with science. In this article, we present wonder-infused pedagogy as a means to create positive pathways for future teachers to engage with both science content and teaching. We first articulate the theoretical foundations underpinning conceptions of wonder in relation to science education, and then move on to share specific practical activities designed to integrate elements of wonder into an elementary methods course. We envision wonder-infused pedagogy not as a disruptive force in standard science methods courses, but rather an effort to deepen inquiry and connect it to the emotive and imaginative selves of our students. The article closes with thorough descriptions of wonder related activities including wonder journaling and a wonder fair in order to illustrate the pedagogical possibilities of this approach. We provide student examples of these artifacts and exit tickets articulating student experiences within the course. We also consider possible challenges that teacher educators may encounter during this process and methods to address those possible hurdles. We found that the process involved in wonder-infused pedagogy provided possibilities for future teachers to reconnect and rekindle a joyful relationship with authentic science practice.

Innovations Journal articles, beyond each issue's featured article, are included with ASTE membership. If your membership is current please login at the upper right.

Become a member or renew your membership

References

Akerson, V., Morrison. J, & McDuffie, A. (2006). One course is not enough: Preservice elementary teachers’ retention of improved views of nature of science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 43, 194–213.

Atkins, L., & Salter, I. (2015). Engaging future teachers in having wonderful ideas. In C. Sandifer and E. Brewe (Eds.). Recruiting and Educating Future Physics Teachers: Case Studies and Effective Practices (pp. 199-213). College Park, MD: American Physical Society.

Bianchi, L. (2014). The keys to wonder-rich science learning. In K. Egan, A. Cant, & G. Judson (Eds.). Wonder-Full education: The centrality of wonder in teaching, and learning across the curriculum (pp. 190–203). New York, NY: Routledge.

Brand, B., & Wilkins, J. (2007). Using self-efficacy as a construct for evaluating science and mathematics methods courses. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 18, 299–317. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1007/s10972-007-9038-7

Bybee, R. (2015). The BSCS 5E instructional model: Creating teachable moments. Arlington, VA: NSTA Press.

Bybee, R. (2002). Learning Science and the Science of Learning. Arlington, VA: National Science Teacher Association Press.

Carson, R. (1965). The sense of wonder. New York, NY: Harper and Row.

Cobb, E. (1977). The ecology of imagination in childhood. New York, NY. Columbia University Press.

Cox, B. (2011). Wonders of the universe. London, England: Harper Collins.

Egan, K. (2005). An imaginative approach to teaching. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Einstein, A. (1931). Living philosophies. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.

Gilbert, A. (2009). Utilizing science philosophy statements to facilitate K-3 teacher candidate’s development of inquiry-based science practice. Early Childhood Education Journal, 36(5), 431-438.

Gilbert, A. (2013). Using the notion of ‘wonder’ to develop positive conceptions of science with future primary teachers. Science Education International, 24(1), 6-32. Retrieved from: http://www.icaseonline.net/sei/march2013/p1.pdf

Gilbert, A. & Byers, C. (2017). Wonder as a tool to engage preservice elementary teachers in science learning and teaching. Science Education. 101(6), 907-928. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.21300

Hadzigeorgiou, Y. (2012). Fostering a sense of wonder in the science classroom. Research in Science Education, 42(5), 985–1005. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1007/s11165-011-9225-6

Hadzigeorgiou, Y. (2016). Imaginative science education: The central role of imagination in science education. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International.

Kenny, J. (2012). University-school partnerships: Preservice and in-service teachers working together to teach primary science.  Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 37(3), 57-82.

Llewellyn, D. (2002). Inquire Within: Implementing Inquiry Based Science Standards. California, USA: Corwin Press.

Mangiaracina, M. (2017). When is melting not really melting? Building explanations through exploration using an engaging toy. Science and Children, 55(4), 61-66.

NGSS Lead States. (2013). Next Generation Science Standards: For states, by states. Washington DC: National Academies Press.

Piersol, (2014). Our hearts leap up: Awakening wonder within the classroom. In K. Egan, A. Cant, & G. Judson (Eds.). Wonder-Full education: The centrality of wonder in teaching, and learning across the curriculum (pp. 3-21). New York, NY: Routledge.

Schinkel, A. (2017). The educational importance of deep wonder. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 51(2), 538–553. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9752.12233

Trotman, D. (2014). Wow! What if? So what?: Education and the imagination of wonder: Fascination, possibilities and opportunities missed. In K. Egan, A. Cant, & G. Judson (Eds.). Wonder-Full education: The centrality of wonder in teaching, and learning across the curriculum (pp. 22-39). New York, NY: Routledge.

Tytler, R. (2007). Re-imagining Science Education Engaging students in science for Australia’s future. Camberwell, VIC: Australian Council for Educational Research.

Van Aalderen-Smeets, S., Walma Van Der Molen, J., & Asma, L. (2011). Primary teachers’ attitudes toward science: A new theoretical framework. Science Education, 96, 158–182. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.20467

Whitin, P., & Whitin, D. (1997). Inquiry at the window: Pursuing the wonders of learners. London: Heinemen.