Promoting Understanding of Three Dimensions of Science Learning Plus Nature of Science Using Phenomenon-Based Learning

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Saberi, M. & Noushin, N. (2024). Promoting understanding of three dimensions of science learning plus nature of science using phenomenon-based learning. Innovations in Science Teacher Education, 9(1). Retrieved from
by Maryam Saberi, Ministry of Education of Iran; & Noushin Nouri, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley


The utilization of phenomenon-based learning (PhBL) for science instruction remains limited despite its alignment with the goals outlined in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS; NGSS Lead States, 2013) due to the lack of exemplary materials and inadequate training opportunities for teachers. The aim of this article is to illustrate the steps of the PhBL method by providing an exploratory learning experience as it was implemented in a preservice setting. In this study, we provide an innovative perspective by illuminating how this kind of instruction can be used as a context to explicitly discuss the three dimensions of learning (i.e., Disciplinary Core Ideas, Science and Engineering Practices, and Crosscutting Concepts; NGSS Lead States, 2013) as well as the nature of science (NOS). Using PhBL to teach NOS is an answer to the concern of teachers who think teaching NOS would take time from their content teaching. Hopefully, this article provides a comprehensive guideline for science educators to facilitate the inclusion of PhBL in their science methods courses and use it to clarify the three dimensions of NGSS and the incorporation of NOS within these dimensions for preservice teachers.

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