Introducing ‘Making’ to Elementary and Secondary Preservice Science Teachers Across Two University Settings

by Shelly R. Rodriguez, The University of Texas, Austin; Steven S. Fletcher, St. Edwards University; & Jason R. Harron, The University of Texas, Austin
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Abstract

‘Making’ describes a process of iterative fabrication that draws on a DIY mindset, is collaborative, and allows for student expression through the creation of meaningful products. While making and its associated practices have made their way into many K-12 settings, teacher preparation programs are still working to integrate making and maker activities into their courses. This paper describes an end-of-semester maker project designed to introduce preservice science teachers to making as an educational movement. The project was implemented in two different higher education contexts, a public university secondary STEM introduction to teaching course and a private university elementary science methods course. The purpose of this article is to share this work by articulating the fundamental elements of the project, describing how it was enacted in each of the two settings, reviewing insights gained, and discussing possibilities for future iterations. The project’s instructional strategies, materials, and insights will be useful for those interested in bringing making into science teacher preparation.

Keywords: constructionism; making; preservice; project-based; science education

Piloting an Adaptive Learning Platform with Elementary/Middle Science Methods

by Matthew E. Vick, University of Wisconsin-Whitewater
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Abstract

Adaptive learning allows students to learn in customized, non-linear pathways. Students demonstrate prior knowledge and thus focus their learning on challenging content. They are continually assessed with low stakes questions allowing for identification of content mastery levels. A science methods course for preservice teachers piloted the use of adaptive learning. Design and implementation are described. Instructors need to realistically consider the time required to redesign a course in an adaptive learning system and to develop varied and numerous assessment questions. Overall, students had positive feelings toward the use of adaptive learning. Their mastery levels were not as high as anticipated by the instructor. The student outcomes on their summative assessment did not show high levels of transfer of the key content.

Keywords: Adaptive Learning, Science Methods, Pedagogy, Course Design

Lessons Learned from Going Global: Infusing Classroom-based Global Collaboration (CBGC) into STEM Preservice Teacher Preparation

by M. Kate York, The University of Texas at Dallas; Rebecca Hite, Texas Tech University; & Katie Donaldson, The University of Texas at Dallas
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Abstract

There are many affordances of integrating classroom based global collaboration (CBGC) experiences into the K-12 STEM classroom, yet few opportunities for STEM preservice teachers (PST) to participate in these strategies during their teacher preparation program (TPP). We describe the experiences of 12 STEM PSTs enrolled in a CBGC-enhanced course in a TPP. PSTs participated in one limited communication CBGC (using mathematics content to make origami for a global audience), two sustained engaged CBGCs (with STEM PSTs and in-service graduate students at universities in Belarus and South Korea), and an individual capstone CBGC-infused project-based learning (PBL) project. Participating STEM PSTs reported positive outcomes for themselves as teachers in their 21st century skills development and increased pedagogical content knowledge. Participants also discussed potential benefits for their students in cultural understanding and open-mindedness. Implementation of each of these CBGCs in the STEM PST course, as well as STEM PST instructors’ reactions and thoughts, are discussed.

Science Units of Study with a Language Lens: Preparing Teachers for Diverse Classrooms

by Amy J. Heineke, Loyola University Chicago; & Jay McTighe, McTighe & Associates Consulting
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Abstract

Recent educational policy reforms have reinvigorated the conversation regarding the role of language in the science classroom. In schools, the Next Generation Science Standards have prompted pedagogical shifts yielding language-rich science and engineering practices. At universities, newly required performance-based assessments have led teacher educators to consider the role of academic language in subject-specific teaching and learning. Simultaneous to these policy changes, the population has continued to diversify, with schools welcoming students who speak hundreds of different languages and language varieties at home, despite English continuing as the primary medium of instruction in science classrooms. Responding to these policy and demographic shifts, we have designed an innovation to prepare teachers and teacher candidates to design instruction that promotes students’ disciplinary language development during rigorous and meaningful science instruction. We add a language lens to the widely used Understanding by Design® framework, emphasizing inclusion and integration with what teachers already do to design science curriculum and instruction, rather than an add-on initiative that silos language development apart from content learning. This language lens merges the principles of culturally and linguistically responsive practice with the three stages of backward instructional design to support educators in designing effective and engaging science instruction that promotes language development and is accessible to the growing number of students from linguistically diverse backgrounds.

Scaffolding Preservice Science Teacher Learning of Effective English Learner Instruction: A Principle-Based Lesson Cycle

by Sarah A. Roberts, University of California, Santa Barbara; & Julie A. Bianchini, University of California, Santa Barbara
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Abstract

This paper examines a lesson development, implementation, revision, and reflection cycle used to support preservice secondary science teachers in learning to teach English learners (ELs) effectively. We begin with a discussion of our framework for teaching reform-based science to ELs – four principles of effective EL instruction and three levels of language – that shaped both our science methods course, more generally, and the lesson cycle, in particular. We then present a model lesson implemented in the methods course that highlighted these principles and levels for our preservice teachers. Next, we describe how preservice teachers used their participation in and analysis of this model lesson as a starting point to develop their own lessons, engaging in a process of development, implementation, revision, and reflection around our EL principles and language levels. We close with a description of our course innovation, viewed through the lens of the preservice teachers. We attempt to provide practical insight into how other science teacher educators can better support their preservice teachers in effectively teaching ELs.

The Great Ice Investigation: Preparing Pre-Service Elementary Teachers for a Sensemaking Approach of Science Instruction

by Justin R. McFadden, University of Louisville
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Abstract

The current article describes a sequence of lessons, readings, and resources aimed to prepare elementary preservice teachers for science instruction wherein student sensemaking, rather than vocabulary memorization, is prioritized. Within the article, I describe how the prompts, questions, and logistics of the The Great Ice Investigation drive my students’ in-class and out-of-class learning to start out every science methods course I teach. The readings and resources detailed that compliment the Great Ice Investigation should benefit both preservice as well as in-service elementary teachers just beginning to align their instruction with the Next Generation Science Standards. The lessons, readings, and resources described should be of value to science teacher educators looking to modify and improve how they prepare their students for next generation science instruction.

Learning About Science Practices: Concurrent Reflection on Classroom Investigations and Scientific Works

by Mo A. Basir, University of Central Missouri
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Abstract

The NRC (2012) emphasizes eight science practices as a constitutive part of science teaching and learning. Pre-service teachers should be able to perform those practices at least in an introductory-level science investigation. Additionally, they also need to be able to elicit and interpret those science practices in the work of students. Through the integration of doing science and reading about how scientists do science, this article provides a practical teaching approach encouraging critical thinking about science practices. The instructional approach emphasizes on performing science practices, explicitly thinking about how students and scientists do science, and reflecting on similarities and differences between how students and scientists perform science practices. The article provides examples and tools for the proposed instructional approach.

Partnering for Engineering Teacher Education

by Lara K. Smetana, Loyola University Chicago; Cynthia Nelson, Loyola University Chicago; Patricia Whitehouse, William C. Goudy Technology Academy; & Kim Koin, Chicago Children's Museum
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Abstract

The aim of this article is to describe a specific approach to preparing elementary teacher candidates to teach engineering through a field-based undergraduate course that incorporates various engineering experiences. First, candidates visit a children’s museum to engage in engineering challenges and reflect on their experiences as learners as well as teachers. The majority of course sessions occur on-site in a neighborhood elementary school with a dedicated engineering lab space and teacher, where candidates help facilitate small group work to develop their own understandings about engineering and instructional practices specific to science and engineering. Candidates also have the option to attend the elementary school’s Family STEM Night which serves as another example of how informal engineering experiences can complement formal school-day experiences as well as how teachers and schools work with families to support children’s learning. Overall, candidates have shown increased confidence in engineering education as demonstrated by quantitative data collected through a survey instrument measuring teacher beliefs regarding teaching engineering self-efficacy. The survey data was complemented by qualitative data collected through candidates’ written reflections and interviews. This approach to introducing elementary teacher candidates to engineering highlights the value of a) capitalizing on partnerships, b) immersing candidates as learners in various educational settings with expert educators, c) providing opportunities to observe, enact, and analyze the enactment of high-leverage instructional practices, and d) incorporating opportunities for independent and collaborative reflection.